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Table 2 Inclusion themes and subthemes

From: Inclusion and exclusion criteria used in non-specific low back pain trials: a review of randomised controlled trials published between 2006 and 2012

Theme Subthemes n (%)
1 Anatomical area Between costal margins and gluteal folds 8 (5)
Below scapulae and above gluteal folds 3 (2)
T6 or below 2 (1)
T7 or below 2 (1)
Low back or buttocks 2 (1)
Between L1 and gluteal folds 2 (1)
Between L1 and SI-joints 1 (1)
At or above waist level 1 (1)
2 Symptoms and signs Low back pain 150 (89)
With or without referred Leg pain 27 (16)
Back pain 10 (6)
Without referred leg pain 7 (4)
Pain exacerbated by movement 5 (3)
Limited movement 3 (2)
Stiffness 2 (1)
Tension 2 (1)
With referred leg pain 1 (1)
Pain at rest 1 (1)
Discomfort 1 (1)
3 Patient-reported outcome measures with score thresholds for inclusion Visual Analogue Scale* (0 to 100)
 ≥ 40 mm 6 (4)
 ≥ 30 mm 4 (2)
 ≥ 65 mm 1 (1)
 ≥ 35 mm 1 (1)
 ≥ 20 mm 1 (1)
 ≥ 10 mm 1 (1)
Oswestry Functional Disability Index (0 to 100%)
 ≥ 30% 2 (1)
 ≥ 25% 2 (1)
 ≥ 20% 1 (1)
 ≥ 15% 1 (1)
Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (0 to 24)
 ≥ 3 points 2 (1)
 ≤ 4 points 1 (1)
 ≤ 5 points 1 (1)
Numeric Rating Scale (0 to 10)
 ≥ 3 points 1 (1)
 ≥ 2 points 1 (1)
Von Korff Chronic Pain Grade (0 to 4)
 ≥ Grade 1 1 (1)
Hanover Ability Questionnaire (0 to 100%)
 ≤ 70% 1 (1)
Short-From 36
 “moderate pain and moderate disability (measured by adaptations of items 7 and 8 of SF-36)” 1 (1)
Brief Pain Inventory (0 to 10 on Average pain)
 “4 points on average pain last 6 months” 1 (1)
  1. *Visual Analogue Scale transformed to 0 to 100 mm