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Table 2 Descriptive scale characteristics, factor structure, and reliability of the Postural Awareness Scale (PAS)

From: Postural awareness and its relation to pain: validation of an innovative instrument measuring awareness of body posture in patients with chronic pain

  Factor 1: Ease/Familiarity with Postural Awareness (alpha = 0.81) Factor 2: Need for Attention Regulation with Postural Awareness (alpha = 0.77)
  Item Mean ± standard deviation Item difficulty Factor loading Alpha if item deleted Corrected item-total correlation Factor loading Alpha if item deleted Corrected item-total correlation
1 Needs to concentrate for being aware of posturea 3.6 ± 1.7 0.51 0.80 0.72 0.58
2 Awareness of bad posture only by paina 2.9 ± 1.7 0.41 0.78 0.72 0.59
3 Knows how to change posture to relieve painb 5.0 ± 1.5 0.71
4 Slumps down when sittinga 2.8 ± 1.7 0.40 0.65 0.73 0.54
5 Unaware of posture when focuseda 2.5 ± 1.3 0.36 0.54 0.75 0.48
6 Difficulties to consciously adopt a posturea 3.9 ± 1.9 0.56 0.72 0.73 0.54
7 Often checks posture when working 3.7 ± 1.7 0.53 0.73 0.78 0.57
8 Influences her/his own appeal by posture 4.9 ± 1.6 0.70 0.56 0.81 0.40
9 Always aware of sitting or standing posture 3.4 ± 1.5 0.49 0.80 0.76 0.67
10 Often makes her/himself aware of her/his posture 3.8 ± 1.6 0.54 0.79 0.75 0.67
11 Aware of posture even when focused 2.8 ± 1.5 0.40 0.77 0.77 0.62
12 Regulates how she/he feels through posture 3.6 ± 1.6 0.51 0.63 0.80 0.49
13 Needs to concentrate to feel whether a posture benefits her/him or nota 3.4 ± 1.6 0.49 0.51 0.77 0.38
  1. aReversed scoring
  2. bItem excluded from final instrument
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