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Table 1 Summary of the input parameters in the model for base case analysis and univariate sensitivity analysis

From: Comparison of screening strategies for prevalent vertebral fractures in South Korea: vertebral fracture assessment vs. spine radiography

Parameter Valuea Sources Note
Women Men
Probabilities
 VF prevalence 0.22 [0.08] 0.11 [0.03] HIRA, [17, 18] NHI database [Community-based cohort]
 two-year VF incidence 0.12 [0.13] 0.05 [0.05] HIRA, [32] NHI database [Community-based cohort]
 two-year new VF incidence 0.22 [0.23] 0.22 [0.23] [19, 32] Hospital cohort- NHI database linked data [Community-based cohort]
 RR of new VF on drug therapy 0.58 [0.64] 0.38 [0.41] [19, 23,24,25,26] Meta-analysis literature review, pooled RR [decrease by 10%]
Diagnostic accuracy
 Sensitivity of X-ray 1.00 1.00   Gold standard
 Specificity of X-ray 1.00 1.00   Gold standard
 Sensitivity of VFA 0.82 [0.74] 0.82 [0.74] [22] SR [95% CI lower limit, conservative]
 Specificity of VFA 0.93 [0.89] 0.93 [0.89] [22] SR [95% CI lower limit, conservative]
 VFA impossible 0.03 [0.05] 0.03 [0.05] [22] SR, per patient [per vertebrae]
Costs (€)b
 VFAc 17 [40] 17 [40] [27] 50% of X-ray test costs [Increase by 200% of X-ray costs, conservative]
 X-rayc 24 [17] 24 [17] HIRA EDI code, thoracic and lumbar spine in the AP and lateral
 VFs treatment 1526 [1249] 1707 [1336] HIRA NHI database, per patient [Mild VF relatively]
 Physician visits 9 9 HIRA NHI database, per visit
 Drug therapy 180 194 HIRA Drug weighted average charge, one-year administration
 Procedure 809 934 HIRA NHI database, only in symptomatic VF cases
Radiation doses (μSv)
 X-ray 600 600 [12]  
 VFA 25 [2] 25 [2] [12] Average level of 2 to 50 μSv [lower limit]
  1. VF vertebral fracture, HIRA Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, NHI National Health Insurance, RR relative risk, AP anterior-posterior, VFA vertebral fracture assessment, SR systematic review
  2. aValue in brackets, []: Inputs data for univariate sensitivity analysis
  3. bKorean won converted to euros (€) using an exchange rate of 1€ = 1482 KRW (2013)
  4. cVFA and X-ray costs included the test and a physician visit