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Table 4 Comparisons of shoulder kinematics between the FS (frozen shoulder) group (n = 20) and asymptomatic group (n = 20) at baseline; and before and after one-session muscle release intervention in the FS group (n = 18)

From: The immediate effect of muscle release intervention on muscle activity and shoulder kinematics in patients with frozen shoulder: a cross-sectional, exploratory study

Shoulder kinematics (°) Asymptomatic group Mean (SD) FS group P-valuea P-valueb
Pre-test Mean (SD) Post-test Mean (SD)
Scaption task
Humeral elevation 130.54 (8.64) 95.18 (15.83) 98.24 (15.57) <.001* 0.034*
Scapular PT 21.24 (4.51) 11.06 (3.94) 14.36 (4.65) <.001* 0.002*
Scapular UR 34.92 (9.28) 28.19 (7.74) 30.17 (7.96) 0.017* 0.209
Hand to neck task
Humeral elevation 117.72 (8.98) 95.73 (12.09) 98.61 (16.06) <.001* 0.275
Scapular PT 16.74 (4.74) 9.47 (3.86) 12.80 (8.33) <.001* 0.025*
Scapular UR 26.45 (6.99) 30.30 (13.43) 26.12 (5.81) 0.262 0.102
Thumb to waist task
Humeral elevation −56.24 (7.09) −48.03 (9.79) −47.61 (9.49) 0.004* 0.742
Scapular PT −27.03 (7.06) −27.49 (7.93) −26.96 (8.67) 0.846 0.633
Scapular UR −5.30 (3.60) −4.86 (4.12) −4.85 (3.68) 0.719 0.639
  1. SD: standard deviation; PT: posterior tilt; UR: upward rotation
  2. aMultivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the differences between the FS and asymptomatic group;
  3. bRepeated measures MANOVA was used to analyze the effect of muscle release treatment on shoulder kinematics in the FS group
  4. *The level of significance was set at p < .05