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Table 1 Study participant characteristics at baseline between groups

From: Sex differences in response to targeted kyphosis specific exercise and posture training in community-dwelling older adults: a randomized controlled trial

Variable Overall Active Control p-value
(N = 101a) (N = 53a) (N = 48a)
  Mean ± SD
Age (years) 70 ± 5.7 69.4 ± 5.8 70.0 ± 5.7 0.62
Cobb angle of kyphosis (degrees) 55.9 ± 12.2 57.5 ± 13.6 54.2 ± 10.4 0.18
Kyphosis derived from kyphometer (degrees) 52.0 ± 7.4 51.4 ± 7.9 52.7 ± 7.0 0.37
BMI (kg/m2) 26.2 ± 4.1 26.0 ± 4.3 26.4 ± 3.9 0.64
Bone mineral density total hip t-score −0.9 ± 1.1 −1.02 ± 1.0 −0.7 ± 1.2 0.10
Bone mineral density total spine t-score −0.2 ± 2.2 −0.5 ± 1.8 0.2 ± 2.5 0.09
  N (%)
Race/ethnicity – Caucasian 94 (93) 50 (94) 44 (92) 0.60
Education     0.85
 Some college, vocational or high school 13 (13) 6 (14.5) 7 (15)  
 College graduate (BA, BS) 33 (33) 17 (32) 16 (33)  
 Professional or graduate degree 55 (54) 30 (54) 25 (52)  
Co-morbidities     0.85
 0–1 61 (60) 25 (61) 36 (60)  
 2+ 40 (40) 16 (39) 24 (40)  
 Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) (yes) 22 (23) 14 (27) 8 (17) 0.24
Vertebral fracture     0.16
None 87 (86) 48 (91) 39 (81)  
Mild 9 (9) 2 (4) 7 (15)  
Severe 5 (5) 3 (6) 2 (4)  
  1. arestricted to participants with readable baseline and follow-up radiographs of sufficient quality tthat could be evalauted to compare change in the primary Cobb angle outcome; kg/m2 = kilogram/m2; SQ = semi-quantitative Genant scoring