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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Characteristics and determinants of clinical symptoms in radiographic lumbar spinal stenosis in a tertiary health care centre in sub-Saharan Africa

Parameter Cases (N = 57) Controls (N = 58) Total (N = 115) p - value
Age (years), mean ± SD 55.23 ± 12.89 51.52 ± 13.09 53.36 ± 13.07 0.128
Age strata, n (%)     0.285
  < 40 6 (10.5) 10 (17.2) 16 (13.9)  
 40–49 12 (21.1) 12 (20.7) 24 (20.9)  
 50–59 17 (29.8) 19 (32.8) 36 (31.3)  
 60–69 12 (21.1) 14 (24.1) 26 (22.6)  
 70–79 10 (17.5) 3 (5.2) 13 (11.3)  
Female, n (%) 31 (54.39) 32 (55.17) 63 (54.78) 0.932
Occupation     0.441
 Managers 1 (1.8) 1 (1.7) 2 (1.7)  
 Professionals 7 (12.3) 9 (15.5) 16 (13.9)  
 Clerical support workers 8 (14.0) 7 (12.1) 15 (13.0)  
 Service and sales workers 9 (15.8) 11 (19.0) 20 (17.4)  
 Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery 18 (31.6) 9 (15.5) 27 (23.5)  
 Craft and related trades workers 7 (12.3) 7 (12.1) 14 (12.2)  
 Elementary occupations 7 (12.3) 14 (24.1) 21 (18.3)  
Mean Weight (kg), mean ± SD 87.46 ± 20.95 74.05 ± 12.76 80.71 ± 18.51 <0.001
Mean Height (m), mean ± SD 1.66 ± 0.09 1.69 ± 0.09 1.68 ± 0.09 0.054
Mean BMI, (kg/m2), mean ± SD 31.93 ± 8.67 25.80 ± 4.31 28.84 ± 7.47 <0.001
BMI Class, n (%)     <0.001
 Normal 10 (17.5) 26 (44.8) 36 (31.3)  
 Overweight 12 (21.1) 27 (46.6) 39 (33.9)  
 Obese 35 (61.4) 5 (8.6) 40 (34.8)  
Waist circumference (cm), mean ± SD 102.19 ± 14.54 90.19 ± 9.08 96.14 ± 13.47 <0.001
High waist circumference, n (%) 37 (64.9) 25 (43.1) 62 (53.9) 0.019
Sitting height (cm), mean ± SD 81.91 ± 7.3 82.69 ± 5.37 82.30 ± 6.36 0.514
Relative sitting height, mean ± SD 49.29 ± 3.26 48.84 ± 2.88 49.07 ± 3.07 0.437
Radiographic Stenosis, n (%)     0.352
 Central 32 (56.1) 33 (56.9) 65 (56.5)  
 Foraminal 23 (40.4) 25 (43.1) 48 (41.7)  
 Lateral 2 (3.5) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.7)  
Type of vertebra lesion, n (%)     0.073
 None 13 (22.8) 16 (27.6) 29 (25.2)  
 IAJOH 33 (57.9) 24 (41.4) 57 (49.6)  
 Osteophytes 8 (14.0) 18 (31.0) 26 (22.6)  
 Listhesis 2 (3.5) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.7)  
 Tumoral 1 (1.8) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.9)  
Type of disc lesion, n (%)     0.173
 None 10 (17.5) 22 (37.9)   
 IDD 8 (15.8) 10 (17.2)   
 IDP 5 (8.8) 6 (10.3)   
 IDH 5 (8.8) 5 (8.6)   
 HP 2 (3.5) 2 (3.4)   
 DDP 15 (26.3) 8 (13.8)   
 DDH 11 (19.3) 5 (8.6)   
Disc lesion level, n (%)     
 L1-L2 2 (3.5) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.7) 0.100
 L2-L3 7 (12.3) 1 (1.7) 8 (7.0) 0.009
 L3-L4 22 (38.6) 4 (6.9) 26 (22.6) <0.001
 L4-L5 37 (64.9) 19 (32.8) 56 (48.7) <0.001
 L5-S1 31 (54.4) 37 (63.8) 68 (59.1) 0.556
 Multi-level 33 (57.9) 19 (32.8) 52 (45.2) 0.007
Ligamentum Flavum hypertrophy, n (%) 32 (56.1) 35 (60.3) 67 (58.3) 0.648
  1. BMI body mass index, IAJOH inter apophysial joint osteoarthritis and hypertrophy, IDD isolated degenerative disc, IDP isolated disc protrusion, IDH isolated disc herniation, HP disc herniation and protrusion, DDP degenerative disc protrusion, DDH degenerative disc herniation