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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample (n = 1023)

From: High-impact exercise in adulthood and vertebral dimensions in midlife - the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study

  Men
(n = 459, 44.9%)
Women
(n = 564, 55.1%)
Age at imaging (years)a 46.8 (0.4) 46.8 (0.4)
Cross-sectional area of L4, (cm2)a 13.3 (1.7) 10.5 (1.3)
Height of L4 (cm)a 2.8 (1.5) 2.7 (1.4)
Height (cm)a 178.7 (6.1) 164.7 (5.8)
Weight (kg)a 86.2 (12.5) 71.8 (14.4)
BMI (kg/m2)a 27.0 (3.6) 26.5 (5.3)
BMI, classifiedb
  < 18.5 0.4 (2) 0.7 (4)
  18.5–24.9 32.0 (147) 46.5 (262)
  25.0–29.9 49.2 (226) 31.0 (175)
  ≥ 30 18.3 (84) 21.8 (123)
Education (years)b
  ≤ 9 2.8 (13) 2.0 (11)
  9–12 73.2 (336) 72.9 (411)
  > 12 24.0 (110) 25.2 (142)
Smokingb
  Non-smoker 49.7 (228) 61.0 (344)
  Former 35.3 (162) 23.8 (134)
  Current 15.0 (69) 15.2 (86)
High-impact sports at age 31b
  Non-participant 56.9 (261) 68.6 (387)
  Participant 43.1 (198) 31.4 (177)
High-impact sports at age 46b
  Non-participant 63.0 (289) 70.7 (399)
  Participant 37.0 (170) 29.3 (165)
Longitudinal impact categoryb
  Low 44.7 (205) 58.3 (329)
  Mixed 30.5 (140) 22.7 (128)
  High 24.8 (114) 19.0 (107)
  1. aMean (standard deviation)
  2. bPer cent (n). BMI = body mass index