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Table 4 Prognostic factors for long-term (> 4 months) outcome in acute lateral ankle sprain

From: Prognostic factors for recovery following acute lateral ankle ligament sprain: a systematic review

Study Primary outcome measure Independent variable(s) Analysis Prognostic factors for long-term outcome
Akacha et al. [45] FAOS-S (0-100, 0 = extreme symptoms, 100 = no symptoms). Age, gender. Non-linear mixed model Greater age and female gender associated with slower and incomplete recovery.
Greater age (β = −0.01, 95% CI −0.12 to −0.004)
Female (β = −0.06, 95% CI −0.01 to −0.002)
Langner et al. [46] Time to return to sports activities. MRI grading of ligamentous injury (1-3, 1 = stretching, 2 = partial tear, 3 = complete tear); number of injured ligaments; presence of bone bruise. Multivariate regression MRI grading of ligamentous injury, R 2 = .45, p < 0.01.
Number of injured ligaments, R 2 = .35, p < 0.01.
Bone bruise, R 2 = .32, p < 0.01.
Van Middelkoop et al. [47] Self-reported recovery (NRS, 0-10. 0 = not recovered; 10 = completely recovered) at 12 months. Re-sprain within 3 months; pain at rest at 3 months (NRS, 0-10). Multivariate regression 12 months. Re-sprain within 3 months (β = −1.64, 95% CI −3.11 to −.16); pain at rest at 3 months (β = −.69, 95% CI −1.08 to −.29).
  1. Abbreviations: FAOS-S foot and ankle outcome score symptoms subscale; β standardised beta; 95% CI 95% confidence interval; MRI magnetic resonance imaging; R 2 the coefficient of determination; NRS numerical rating scale