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Table 2 Floor and ceiling effects

From: Reliability, validity and responsiveness of the German self-reported foot and ankle score (SEFAS) in patients with foot or ankle surgery

SEFAS t1 t2
pain lof os total pain lof os total
min (0) 0.7% 4.1% 9.0% 0.7% 0.7% 4.1% 8.2% 0%
max (100) 0% 0% 3.5% 0% 0% 0% 4.8% 0%
all (min + max) 0.7% 4.1% 12.5% 0.7% 0.7% 4.1% 13% 0%
  1. Floor and ceiling effects are considered to be present when more than 15% of the individuals reach the highest or lowest possible numeric value of a score
  2. t1 = 3–14 days before surgery, t2 = morning before surgery, lof = limitation of function, os = others