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Table 4 Study aims

From: Objective impairments of gait and balance in adults living with HIV-1 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Study ID Design Aim
Trenkwalder 1992 [46] Cross-sectional To measure postural performance quantitavely in PLHIV (in different disease stages) versus seronegative controls, using a force plate.
Arendt 1994 [47] Cross-sectional To determine if stance control is impaired in early versus late HIV infection, using a force plate, and to compare results with the COG patterns in pyramidal or extrapyramidal disease.
Beckley 1998 [50] Cross-sectional To evaluate postural reflexes with EMG in PLHIV without obvious neurological disease, in order to determine whether postural reflexes are early markers of CNS involvement.
Bauer 2005 [7] Cross-sectional To assess sensorimotor function in PLHIV and seronegative controls.
Simmonds 2005 [49] Cross-sectional To characterize physical performance in PLHIV, and to examine group differences by pain and fatigue.
Dellepiane 2005 [48] Cross-sectional To investigate whether posturography can detect the presence of possible disorders of the vestibulo-spinal reflex.
Scott 2007 [35] Cross-sectional To determine the extent of neuromuscular activation of selected lower limb muscles of male PLHIV receiving ART, and its relationship to performance in clinical functional tests.
Richert 2011 [8] Cross-sectional To provide standardized assessments of locomotor function in PLHIV, focusing on lower limb muscle performance and balance, and on potential determinants of functional impairment.
Bauer 2011 [22] Cross-sectional To compare balance and gait in participants who differ in BMI and the presence or absence of HIV/AIDS.
Sullivan 2011 [21] Cross-sectional To investigate whether infratentorial brain volume would be marked by regional tissue shrinkage in PLHIV versus seronegative controls, and whether tissue deficits would be related to impairment in postural stability or psychomotor speed, using structural MRI and quantitative tests of postural stability, finger movement, psychomotor speed and dexterity.
Erlandson 2012a [10] Cross-sectional To compare the FFP, SPPB, and 400-m walk in PLHIV.
Erlandson 2012b [18] Cross-sectional To determine fall-rate and -risk factors among PLHIV by correlating fall history, medical diagnoses, and functional tests.
Cohen 2012 [45] Cross-sectional To determine whether PLHIV on HAART had an increased prevalence of vestibular disorders versus seronegative controls, using standard screening tests of vestibular and balance function.
Beans 2013 [43] Cross-sectional To compare locomotor function in male PLHIV versus seronegative controls, and test the association with aerobic exercise capacity.
Mbada 2013 [44] Cross-sectional To compare HRQOL and a performance-based measure of functional capacity between a homogenous sample of clinical stage I PLHIV versus seronegative controls.
Richert 2014 [9] Prospective cohort To prospectively assess the changes in locomotor function in PLHIV over time and to evaluate the determinants of variations in lower limb muscle performance.
Erlandson 2014 [12] Cross-sectional To assess the impact of physical function impairments on HRQOL in PLHIV using ART.
  1. Abbreviations: ART antiretroviral therapy, BMI body mass index, CNS central nervous system, COG centre of gravity, EMG electromyography, FFP Fried’s Frailty Phenotype, HRQOL health-related quality of life, PLHIV people living with HIV, SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery