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Table 2 Level and volume of the primary Modic change at baseline and follow-up and the change in the volume according to treatment group

From: The effect of zoledronic acid on type and volume of Modic changes among patients with low back pain

Volume of the primary Modic changea Mean (SD) Mean (SD) change Age-adjusted analyses Adjusted analyses
ZA n = 19 Placebo n = 20 ZA Placebo Pb Difference (95% CI) Pc Difference (95% CI) Pd
Levela, n (%)
 L2/3 4 (21.1) 0 (0.0)        
 L3/4 2 (10.5) 5 (25.0)        
 L4/5 6 (31.6) 5 (25.0)        
 L5/S1 7 (36.8) 10 (50.0)        
Volume of M1a (cm3)
 Baseline 7.37 (4.58) 5.04 (3.55)        
 Follow-up 6.54 (5.38) 5.95 (4.46) -0.83 (4.44) 0.91 (4.02) 0.21 −1.79 (−4.58, 1.00) 0.20 −1.92 (−5.03, 1.19) 0.22
Volume of M2a (cm3)
 Baseline 4.53 (4.00) 5.87 (4.84)        
 Follow-up 6.94 (4.57) 7.84 (6.78) 2.40 (2.95) 1.97 (4.20) 0.71 0.34 (−2.07, 2.74) 0.78 0.232 (−2.44, 2.90) 0.86
Total volumea (cm3)
 Baseline 11.90 (5.27) 10.91 (5.96)        
 Follow-up 13.48 (5.55) 13.79 (6.64) 1.58 (2.24) 2.88 (3.92) 0.21 −1.45 (−3.55, 0.64) 0.17 −1.69 (−4.14, 0.76) 0.17
  1. SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval, ZA zoledronic acid
  2. aThe primary Modic change was assumed to cause patients’ symptoms at baseline
  3. bChange in the volume compared between the treatment groups, significance from the independent samples t-test
  4. cAnalysis of covariance for change in the volume compared between the treatment groups, adjusted for age
  5. dAnalysis of covariance for change in the volume compared between the treatment groups, adjusted for age, sex, Body Mass Index, and smoking