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Table 1 Reference standards for painful lumbosacral spine structures

From: Clinical classification in low back pain: best-evidence diagnostic rules based on systematic reviews

Structure Reference standard References
Intervertebral disc Provocation discography with control disc verification [171]
Facet joint Double block procedure in joint space or at nerve supply [148]
Sacroiliac joint Double block procedure in joint space [172]
Nerve root involvement Magnetic resonance imaging, myelography, or surgical findings with or without clinical findings [173]
Spinal stenosis Expert opinion based on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging or surgical findings with or without clinical findings [75, 174]
Spondylolisthesis Sagittal plane rotation or translation movement on functional radiograph or translation on static radiograph [152, 155]
Fracture Radiographs, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging [155]
Myofascial structures None available.  
Peripheral nerve None available.  
Central sensitization Expert consensus