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Table 4 Multivariable multinomial logistic regression with all predictors entered simultaneously and NPS decrease and increase as outcomes, with stable NPS as reference (N = 2199)

From: Psychological predictors of change in the number of musculoskeletal pain sites among Norwegian employees: a prospective study

T1 Predictor Decrease NPS Increase NPS
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Emotional exhaustion 0.92 [0.71–1.19] 1.00 [0.78–1.34]
Mental distress 0.87 [0.53–1.44] 1.50 [0.90–2.50]
Depression (single item) 1.20 [0.93–1.56] 0.95 [0.73–1.25]
Anxiety (single item) 1.14 [0.80–1.62] 0.95 [0.66–1.35]
Psychological well-being
“Had a lot of surplus” 0.87 [0.78–0.97] ** 0.94 [0.84–1.05]
“Felt down and sad” 1.06 [0.91–1.24] 1.07 [0.91–1.26]
Dispositional optimism 1.05 [0.87–1.27] 1.07 [0.88–1.30]
General self-efficacy 1.06 [0.85–1.31] 1.09 [0.87–1.37]
Job satisfaction (single item) 0.96 [0.80–1.15] 1.14 [0.93–1.39]
Sleep disturbance 0.96 [0.84–1.10] 1.07 [0.93–1.23]
Tiredness 0.86 [0.72–1.02] 0.99 [0.82–1.18]
Restlessness 0.77 [0.62–0.96] * 0.95 [0.76–1.18]
Pain intensity
Headache 0.90 [0.77–1.04] 1.09 [0.94–1.26]
Neck pain 0.63 [0.53–0.76] *** 0.96 [0.81–1.15]
Shoulder pain 0.79 [0.66–0.93] ** 1.07 [0.90–1.28]
Leg pain 0.90 [0.76–1.07] 1.01 [0.83–1.22]
Back pain 0.78 [0.66–0.92] *** 1.04 [0.88–1.23]
Arm pain 0.91 [0.77–1.09] 1.01 [0.83–1.22]
Number of pain sites 2.04 [1.69–2.47] *** 0.69 [0.56–0.85] ***
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Note: Subjects that reported either no pain sites or five pain sites at T1 were excluded since they could not experience decrease or increase of NPS, correspondingly. Adjustment was made for sex, age group, and skill level