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Table 2 Separate multinomial logistic regressions relating psychological factors and pain intensities at T1 to number of pain sites (NPS) decrease (NPS T1 > NPS T2) and increase (NPS T1 < NPS T2) compared with reporting a stable number of pain sites (NPS T1 = NPS T2)

From: Psychological predictors of change in the number of musculoskeletal pain sites among Norwegian employees: a prospective study

T1 Predictor N Decrease NPS (T1 > T2) Increase NPS (T1 < T2)
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Emotional exhaustion 2644 0.81 [0.69–0.95] ** 1.34 [1.15–1.57] ***
Mental distress (HSCL) 2752 0.69 [0.54–0.89] *** 1.64 [1.28–2.10] ***
Depression (single item) 2912 0.90 [0.76–1.05] 1.16 [0.99–1.37]
Anxiety (single item) 2909 0.86 [0.66–1.11] 1.09 [0.84–1.41]
Psychological well-being
“Had a lot of surplus” 2814 1.02 [0.95–1.10] 0.87 [0.80–0.95] ***
“Felt down and sad” 2808 0.98 [0.88–1.09] 1.18 [1.06–1.31] ***
Dispositional optimism 2858 1.08 [0.94–1.25] 0.94 [0.81–1.09]
General self-efficacy 2862 0.97 [0.82–1.14] 1.05 [0.88–1.26]
Job satisfaction 2608 1.05 [0.90–1.22] 0.97 [0.82–1.15]
Sleep disturbance 2801 0.87 [0.79–0.96] *** 1.19 [1.07–1.31] ***
Tiredness 2919 0.82 [0.73–0.93] *** 1.24 [1.09–1.40] ***
Restlessness 2915 0.80 [0.69–0.92] *** 1.08 [0.93–1.25]
Pain intensity
Headache 2921 0.81 [0.72–0.91] *** 1.17 [1.04–1.32] **
Neck pain 2924 0.64 [0.56–0.73] *** 1.02 [0.89–1.17]
Shoulder pain 2924 0.78 [0.68–0.89] *** 0.98 [0.85–1.12]
Arm pain 2924 1.09 [0.95–1.25] 0.97 [0.83–1.14]
Leg pain 2924 1.06 [0.93–1.21] 1.03 [0.88–1.19]
Back pain 2924 0.85 [0.76–0.96] ** 1.06 [0.93–1.20]
Number of pain sites at T1 2924 1.33 [1.22–1.45] *** 0.79 [0.72–0.87] ***
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Note: Subjects that reported either no pain sites or five pain sites at T1 were excluded since they could not experience decrease or increase of NPS, correspondingly. All regressions were adjusted for sex, age group, skill level, and T1 NPS