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Table 1 Participants’ baseline characteristics

From: Effects of yoga, strength training and advice on back pain: a randomized controlled trial

Description Kundalini yoga (n = 52) Strength training (n = 52) Control group (n = 55)
Female n, (%) 37 (71.7) 32 (61.5) 44 (80)
Age mean, (SD) 46.9 (9.6) 46.3 (9.3) 43.9 (11.7)
Marital status n, (%)a    
 Single 18 (34.6) 17 (33.3) 11 (20.8)
 Cohabitant with partner/married 31 (59.6) 29 (56.9) 34 (64.2)
 Cohabitant with others 2 (3.8) 4 (7.8) 7 (13.2)
Education n, (%)b    
 Compulsory school 3 (5.8) 3 (5.8) 4 (7.5)
 Upper secondary school 22 (42.3) 26 (50.0) 28 (52.8)
 University/University college 27 (51.9) 23 (44.2) 21 (39.7)
Lived in Sweden n, (%)c    
 Always 37 (71.2) 38 (73.1) 35 (66.0)
 Less than 5 years 2 (3.8) 1 (1.9) 1 (1.9)
 More than 5 years 13 (25.0) 13 (25.0) 17 (32.1)
BMI mean, (SD) 25.7 (4.3) 26.0 (4.2) 25.2 (4.2)
Employment status n, (%)d    
Employed 41 (78.8) 45 (86.5) 53 (96.4)
Student/unemployed/unpaid work 10 (19.2) 7 (13.4) 2 (3.6)
Chronic low back pain n, (%)e 48 (94) 50 (96) 51 (93)
  1. aMarital status missing in kundalini yoga: 1, strength training: 2, control group: 3. bEducation missing in control group: 2. cLived in Sweden missing in control group: 2. dEmployment status missing in kundalini yoga: 1. eThe definition of acute, sub-acute and chronic pain is based on the duration of pain. Chronic low back pain is defined as having pain more than 12 weeks (Von Korff & Saunders, 1996). Abbreviation SD standard deviation