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Table 2 Results of multivariable analysis with rating symptoms acceptable as outcome without (Model 1) and with inclusion of primary pain diagnosis (Model 2)

From: Clinical course and prognosis of musculoskeletal pain in patients referred for physiotherapy: does pain site matter?

  Model 1 Model 2
Variables OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Socio-demographic
Geographical Regionsa
 Capital Region of Denmark 1.00   1.00  
 Region of Southern Denmark 1.14 0.92–1.41 1.16 0.93–1.43
 Central Denmark Region 1.25 1.00–1.57 1.29 1.02–1.62
 North Denmark Region 1.41 1.15–1.74 1.44 1.16–1.78
Health-related income supporta
 None 1.00   1.00  
 Temporary 0.73 0.54–1.00 0.77 0.56–1.05
 Permanent 0.77 0.54–1.10 0.78 0.55–1.11
 Retired 1.18 0.97–1.43 1.22 1.01–1.48
Compensation claim
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 0.59 0.40–0.86 0.58 0.40–0.85
Pain and Function
Pain duration
  < 1 month 1.00    
 1–3 months 0.59 0.48–0.73 0.59 0.48–0.72
 4–12 months 0.46 0.37–0.58 0.46 0.36–0.58
  > 12 months 0.49 0.39–0.60 0.49 0.39–0.60
Disability score 0–100b 0.99 0.99–1.00 0.99 0.99–1.00
Frequency of pain (Constant or daily)
 No 1.00    
 Yes 0.68 0.54–0.86 0.67 0.53–0.85
Psychological factors
Fear avoidance 0–30b 0.98 0.97–0.99 0.99 0.98–1.00
Mental health score 0–100b 1.01 1.00–1.01 1.01 1.00–1.01
Health behaviour
Smoker
 No 1.00    
 Yes 0.87 0.79–0.96 0.87 0.78–0.96
Primary pain diagnosis
 Muscle/Limited function NOS    1.00  
 Neck    1.30 0.94–1.80
 Upper back/Chest    0.90 0.60–1.34
 Low back    1.00 0.73–1.37
 Shoulder    0.95 0.66–1.35
 Arm/Elbow/Hand    1.04 0.68–1.60
 Hip    1.09 0.71–1.67
 Knee    0.80 0.53–1.21
 Thigh/Lower leg/Foot    0.85 0.58–1.25
  1. a p-value < 0.05 for overall test performed with χ2 statistics, b OR per 1 unit increase in scores
  2. Abbreviations: OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence interval, NOS that was Not Otherwise Specified