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Table 3 Common medication classes delivered in the QEII HSC ED for non-urgent LBP patients (n = 325)a

From: Current management practices for patients presenting with low back pain to a large emergency department in Canada

Medication class Frequent medication Number (%)
Opioid   112 (34.5)
  Hydromorphone 81 (24.9)
  Morphine 16 (4.9)
  Acetaminophen and codeine (Tylenol 3)b 19 (5.9)
Anti-inflammatory   115 (35.4)
  Ibuprofen 92 (28.3)
  Ketorolac 27 (8.3)
Analgesic   90 (27.7)
  Acetaminophen 70 (21.5)
Muscle Relaxant   24 (7.4)
Antiemetic   12 (3.7)
Combination of Medicationsc   
Opioid and Anti-inflammatory   55 (16.9)
Opioid and Analgesic   51 (15.7)
Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic   50 (15.4)
  1. aFrequent medications delivered within selected classes are also presented (>4.5%)
  2. bMedications of dual-action (e.g. Tylenol 3) were counted in both medication classes (e.g. opioid and analgesic
  3. cCombination of medications were separately delivered drugs