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Table 2 Comparison of fracture characteristics and healthcare resource utilization between groups (follow-up period; overall study group)

From: Fracture risk and healthcare resource utilization and costs among osteoporosis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without diabetes mellitus in Japan: retrospective analysis of a hospital claims database

  Unadjusted Matched
Characteristic All (N = 15,559) T2DM (N = 7580) Non-DM (N = 7979) P value All (N = 6546) T2DM (N = 3273) Non-DM (N = 3273) P value
Fractures
 Patients with clinical fracturesa, n (%) 1882 (12.1) 1029 (13.6) 853 (10.7) <0.001 738 (11.3) 415 (12.7) 323 (9.9) <0.001
 Number of days to first fracture, mean (SD) 442.8 (259.0) 443.4 (257.7) 442.2 (260.6) <0.0001b 454.5 (261.8) 455.5 (259.2) 453.3 (265.5) 0.0003b
 Patients with non-vertebral fractures, n (%) 1454 (9.3) 817 (10.8) 637 (8.0) <0.001 565 (8.6) 329 (10.1) 236 (7.2) <0.001
Resource utilization
 BMD test, n (%) 6633 (42.6) 2739 (36.1) 3894 (48.8) <0.001 2726 (41.6) 1271 (38.8) 1455 (44.5) <0.001
 Bone formation test, n (%) 768 (4.9) 384 (5.1) 384 (4.8) 0.466 279 (4.3) 135 (4.1) 144 (4.4) 0.582
 Bone resorption test, n (%) 1535 (9.9) 634 (8.4) 901 (11.3) <0.001 609 (9.3) 278 (8.5) 331 (10.1) 0.024
 Osteoporosis-related testsc (post-baseline), n (%) 11,454 (73.6) 5594 (73.8) 5860 (73.4) 0.614 4748 (72.5) 2430 (74.2) 2318 (70.8) 0.002
 Osteoporosis-related testsc (post-baseline), mean per patient (SD) 2.873 (3.198) 2.994 (3.369) 2.758 (3.022) <0.001 2.719 (3.057) 2.86 (3.118) 2.578 (2.989) <0.001
 Hospital admissions, n (%) 4799 (30.8) 2980 (39.3) 1819 (22.8) <0.001 1941 (29.7) 1177 (36.0) 764 (23.3) <0.001
 Hospital admissions, mean per patient (SD) 0.585 (1.451) 0.776 (1.646) 0.405 (1.212) <0.001 0.515 (1.46) 0.635 (1.687) 0.395 (1.179) <0.001
 Days in hospital, mean (SD) 11.58 (36.23) 16.02 (44.22) 7.366 (25.8) <0.001 9.622 (30.03) 12.33 (34.71) 6.914 (24.16) <0.001
 Outpatient visits, n (%) 15,511 (99.7) 7561 (99.7) 7950 (99.6) 0.205 6529 (99.7) 3270 (99.9) 3259 (99.6) 0.008
 Outpatient visits, mean per patient (SD) 39.52 (54.6) 46.84 (58.98) 32.56 (49.09) <0.001 36.26 (45.97) 40.06 (45.13) 32.45 (46.5) <0.001
 Laboratory tests, n (%) 3010 (19.3) 1645 (21.7) 1365 (17.1) <0.001 1338 (20.4) 762 (23.3) 576 (17.6) <0.001
 Laboratory tests, mean per patient (SD) 52.11 (182.8) 68.84 (215.1) 36.21 (144) <0.001 47.56 (157.9) 57.57 (167.1) 37.54 (147.5) <0.001
 Total cost in JPY, mean (SD) 1,130,000 (2,390,000) 1,490,000 (2,750,000) 782,000 (1,940,000) <0.001 912,000 (1,860,000) 1,080,000 (1,930,000) 743,000 (1,770,000) <0.001
 Total cost in JPY, median 322,000 517,000 209,000   295,000 401,000 219,000 <0.001d
  1. Abbreviations: BMD bone mineral density, DM diabetes mellitus, JPY Japanese Yen, SD standard deviation, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus
  2. aClinical fractures include vertebral and non-vertebral fractures
  3. bP value from Log Rank test
  4. cOsteoporosis-related tests include bone formation tests, bone resorption tests, imaging tests, and BMD measurements
  5. dP value from Wilcoxon Rank Sum test