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Table 2 Sex/Gender differences in the ESPA subgroup referred for surgical consultation (N = 169)

From: Sex and gender disparity in pathology, disability, referral pattern, and wait time for surgery in workers with shoulder injury

Variables (Mean, SD)/(N/%) Women (%) Men (%) Statistics P values
Age 54 (10) 53 (10) ttest = 0.58, p = 0.56
Referral pattern 38 (22 %) 131 (78 %) χ2 = 51.17, p < 0.0001
Phi coefficient = 0.55
95 % CI = 0.46–0.64
Effect size = Large
Wait time to assessment (months) 2.83 (0.98) 2.46 (0.80) ttest = 1.04, p = 0.30
Affected Side
 • Right
 • Left
21
17
84
47
χ2 = 0.98, p = 0.32
Mechanism of injury
 • Repetitive activities
 • Fall
 • Traumatic
 • Push/pull
5 (13 %)
54 (12 %)
3 (8 %)
13 (34 %)
7 (5 %)
100 (18 %)
16 (12 %)
50 (38 %)
χ2 = 2.70, p = 0.10
χ2 = 0.11, p = 0.73
χ2 = 0.55, p = 0.46
χ2 = 0.20, p = 0.66
Medication use
 • Non-narcotic analgesics
 • Anti-inflammatory
 • Muscle relaxants
20 (53 %)
(58 %)
0 (0 %)
57(44 %)
237(42 %)
3(2 %)
χ2 = 0.98, p = 0.32
χ2 = 0.01, p = 0.92
FET = 0.46, p = 1.80
Type of pathology
 • FTRCT
 • PTRCT
 • Impingement syndrome
 • Biceps pathology
 • Labral pathology
 • Instability
15 (39 %)
13 (34 %)
9 (24 %)
14 (37 %)
0 (0 %)
3 (2 %)
66 (50 %)
30 (23 %)
19 (15 %)
49 (37 %)
4 (40 %)
5 (3 %)
χ2 = 1.40, p = 0.24
χ2 = 1.98, p = 0.16
χ2 = 1.79, p = 0.18
χ2 = 0.004, p = 0.94
FET = 1.18, p = 0.28
FET = 0.18, p = 0.38
  1. FET Fisher's Exact Test
  2. χ2 = Chi square