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Table 2 Sex/Gender differences in the ESPA subgroup referred for surgical consultation (N = 169)

From: Sex and gender disparity in pathology, disability, referral pattern, and wait time for surgery in workers with shoulder injury

Variables (Mean, SD)/(N/%) Women (%) Men (%) Statistics P values
Age 54 (10) 53 (10) ttest = 0.58, p = 0.56
Referral pattern 38 (22 %) 131 (78 %) χ2 = 51.17, p < 0.0001 Phi coefficient = 0.55 95 % CI = 0.46–0.64 Effect size = Large
Wait time to assessment (months) 2.83 (0.98) 2.46 (0.80) ttest = 1.04, p = 0.30
Affected Side
 • Right  • Left 21 17 84 47 χ2 = 0.98, p = 0.32
Mechanism of injury
 • Repetitive activities  • Fall  • Traumatic  • Push/pull 5 (13 %) 54 (12 %) 3 (8 %) 13 (34 %) 7 (5 %) 100 (18 %) 16 (12 %) 50 (38 %) χ2 = 2.70, p = 0.10 χ2 = 0.11, p = 0.73 χ2 = 0.55, p = 0.46 χ2 = 0.20, p = 0.66
Medication use
 • Non-narcotic analgesics  • Anti-inflammatory  • Muscle relaxants 20 (53 %) (58 %) 0 (0 %) 57(44 %) 237(42 %) 3(2 %) χ2 = 0.98, p = 0.32 χ2 = 0.01, p = 0.92 FET = 0.46, p = 1.80
Type of pathology
 • FTRCT  • PTRCT  • Impingement syndrome  • Biceps pathology  • Labral pathology  • Instability 15 (39 %) 13 (34 %) 9 (24 %) 14 (37 %) 0 (0 %) 3 (2 %) 66 (50 %) 30 (23 %) 19 (15 %) 49 (37 %) 4 (40 %) 5 (3 %) χ2 = 1.40, p = 0.24 χ2 = 1.98, p = 0.16 χ2 = 1.79, p = 0.18 χ2 = 0.004, p = 0.94 FET = 1.18, p = 0.28 FET = 0.18, p = 0.38
  1. FET Fisher's Exact Test
  2. χ2 = Chi square