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Table 1 Sex/Gender differences in the ESPA group (N = 1000)

From: Sex and gender disparity in pathology, disability, referral pattern, and wait time for surgery in workers with shoulder injury

Variables (Mean, SD)/(N/%) Women (%) Men (%) Statistics P values
Age 49 (11) 49 (11) ttest = 0.65, p = 0.51
Referral pattern 443 (44 %) 557 (56 %) χ2 = 12.99, p = 0.0003
Phi coefficient = 0.11
95 % CI = 0.07-0.16
Effect size = Small
Wait time to assessment (months) 2.68 (0.98) 2.63 (0.80) ttest = 0.84, p = 0.40
Affected Side
 • Right
 • Left
 • Bilateral
269 (61 %)
162 (37 %)
12 (3 %)
321 (58 %)
225 (40 %)
11 (2 %)
χ2 = 1.9, p = 0.38
Mechanism of injury
 • Repetitive activities
 • Fall
 • Traumatic
 • Push/pull
69 (16 %)
54 (12 %)
47 (11 %)
175 (40 %)
58 (10 %)
100 (18 %)
53 (10 %)
237 (43 %)
χ2 = 5.93, p = 0.01
χ2 = 6.29, p = 0.01
χ2 = 0.32, p = 0.57
χ2 = 0.94, p = 0.33
Medication use
 • Non-narcotic analgesics
 • Anti-inflammatory
 • Muscle relaxants
213 (48 %)
258 (58 %)
42 (9 %)
229 (41 %)
237 (42 %)
19 (3 %)
χ2 = 4.85, p = 0.03
χ2 = 24.29, p < 0.0001
χ2 = 15.87, p < 0.0001
Type of pathology
 • FTRCT
 • PTRCT
 • Impingement syndrome
 • Biceps pathology
 • Adhesive capsulitis
 • Labral pathology
 • Instability
28 (6 %)
95 (21 %)
231 (52 %)
172 (39 %)
35 (8 %)
0 (0 %)
8 (2 %)
93 (17 %)
128 (23 %)
289 (52 %)
220 (39 %)
43 (8 %)
10 (2 %)
14 (3 %)
χ2 = 24.97, p < 0.0001
RR = 0.38a, 0.25–0.57
χ2 = 0.34, p = 0.56
χ2 = 0.006, p = 0.93
χ2 = 0.05, p = 0.82
χ2 = 0.02, p = 0.91
FET = 0.01, p = 0.01
χ2 = 0.57, p = 0.45
  1. FET Fisher's Exact Test, χ2 = Chi square
  2. aA risk ratio of 0.38 is expressed as women having decreased risk of presenting with FTRCT by 62 %: 100 × (1–0.38) %