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Table 1 Sex/Gender differences in the ESPA group (N = 1000)

From: Sex and gender disparity in pathology, disability, referral pattern, and wait time for surgery in workers with shoulder injury

Variables (Mean, SD)/(N/%) Women (%) Men (%) Statistics P values
Age 49 (11) 49 (11) ttest = 0.65, p = 0.51
Referral pattern 443 (44 %) 557 (56 %) χ2 = 12.99, p = 0.0003 Phi coefficient = 0.11 95 % CI = 0.07-0.16 Effect size = Small
Wait time to assessment (months) 2.68 (0.98) 2.63 (0.80) ttest = 0.84, p = 0.40
Affected Side
 • Right  • Left  • Bilateral 269 (61 %) 162 (37 %) 12 (3 %) 321 (58 %) 225 (40 %) 11 (2 %) χ2 = 1.9, p = 0.38
Mechanism of injury
 • Repetitive activities  • Fall  • Traumatic  • Push/pull 69 (16 %) 54 (12 %) 47 (11 %) 175 (40 %) 58 (10 %) 100 (18 %) 53 (10 %) 237 (43 %) χ2 = 5.93, p = 0.01 χ2 = 6.29, p = 0.01 χ2 = 0.32, p = 0.57 χ2 = 0.94, p = 0.33
Medication use
 • Non-narcotic analgesics  • Anti-inflammatory  • Muscle relaxants 213 (48 %) 258 (58 %) 42 (9 %) 229 (41 %) 237 (42 %) 19 (3 %) χ2 = 4.85, p = 0.03 χ2 = 24.29, p < 0.0001 χ2 = 15.87, p < 0.0001
Type of pathology
 • FTRCT  • PTRCT  • Impingement syndrome  • Biceps pathology  • Adhesive capsulitis  • Labral pathology  • Instability 28 (6 %) 95 (21 %) 231 (52 %) 172 (39 %) 35 (8 %) 0 (0 %) 8 (2 %) 93 (17 %) 128 (23 %) 289 (52 %) 220 (39 %) 43 (8 %) 10 (2 %) 14 (3 %) χ2 = 24.97, p < 0.0001 RR = 0.38a, 0.25–0.57 χ2 = 0.34, p = 0.56 χ2 = 0.006, p = 0.93 χ2 = 0.05, p = 0.82 χ2 = 0.02, p = 0.91 FET = 0.01, p = 0.01 χ2 = 0.57, p = 0.45
  1. FET Fisher's Exact Test, χ2 = Chi square
  2. aA risk ratio of 0.38 is expressed as women having decreased risk of presenting with FTRCT by 62 %: 100 × (1–0.38) %