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Table 1 Characteristics of women with PGP or PGP plus LBP and women with no PGP before inclusion in RCT in pregnancy

From: Predictors and consequences of long-term pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain: a longitudinal follow-up study

Variable PGP or PGP + LBP (n = 37) No PGP (n = 290) p-value
Treatment in RCT
 Standard treatment 11 (29.7 %) 77 (26.6 %)  
 Standard treatment + Acupuncture 14 (37.8 %) 129 (44.5 %)  
 Standard treatment + Specific stabilising exercises 4 (10.8 %) 56 (19.3 %)  
 Standard treatment + Craniosacral therapy 8 (21.6 %) 28 (9.7 %) 0.11
Age, years 30.0 (23.0; 39.0) 31.0 (20.0; 43.0) 0.40
n = 37 n = 289
BMI before pregnancy 22.6 (19.7; 34.2) 23.2 (18.0; 38.4) 0.99
n = 23 n = 115
Age at menarche, years 13.0 (10.0; 15.0) 13.0 (9.0; 16.0) 0.63
n = 32 n = 248
Previous LBP 24 (64.9 %) 127 (44.7 %) 0.032
Women on sick-leave due to PGP 13 (35.1 %) 143 (50.0 %) 0.13
Severity of PGP
 No complaints, PGP do not affect ability to work 1 (2.7 %) 5 (1.8 %)  
 Moderate complaints, PGP only affect ability to work sporadically 5 (13.5 %) 67 (23.8 %)  
 Not insignificant, cannot do some parts of my work 15 (40.5 %) 90 (32.0 %)  
 Severe, can almost not work 12 (32.4 %) 79 (28.1 %)  
 Severe, cannot work at all 4 (10.8 %) 40 (14.2 %) 0.80
Tests for assessment of PGP before inclusion in the RCT
Pain provocation tests
 P4 test 37 (100.0 %) 283 (97.6 %) 0.86
 Symphysis pressure test 22 (59.5 %) 121 (42.2 %) 0.070
 Patrick Faber test 27 (73.0 %) 159 (54.8 %) 0.051
 Modified Trendelenburg test 22 (59.5 %) 116 (40.0 %) 0.039
Number of bilateral positive pain provocation tests
 0 0 (0.0 %) 3 (1.0 %)  
 1 6 (16.2 %) 58 (20.0 %)  
 2 6 (16.2 %) 107 (36.9 %)  
 3 10 (27.0 %) 81 (27.9 %)  
 4 15 (40.5 %) 41 (14.1 %) 0.0013
Functional test    
ASLR test (sum of scores) 3.00 (0.00; 8.00) 3.00 (0.00; 10.00) 0.35
n = 23 n = 116
Subgroups of pelvic girdle pain    
 Solely symphysiolysis 0 (0.0 %) 5 (1.7 %) 1.00
 One sided sacroiliac pain 3 (8.1 %) 37 (12.8 %) 0.61
 One sided sacroiliac pain + symphyseal pain 6 (16.2 %) 39 (13.4 %) 0.80
 Double sided sacroiliac pain 12 (32.4 %) 118 (40.7 %) 0.43
 Pelvic girdle syndrome 16 (43.2 %) 91 (31.4 %) 0.21
Pain related to motion
 In the morning, VAS 31.0 (8.0; 92.0) 26.5 (0.0; 96.0 0.089
 In the evening, VAS 62.0 (5.0; 93.0) 62.8 (6.0; 100.0) 0.30
n = 37 n = 288
Unpleasantness of PGP, VAS 63.0 (20.0; 100.0) 73.0 (0.0; 100.0) 0.068
n = 30 n = 200
DRI 50.0 (23.0; 100.0) 59.0 (11.0; 100.0) 0.11
n = 37 n = 279
EQ-VAS 40.0 (25.0; 100.0) 50.0 (20.0; 99.0) 0.37
n = 23 n = 113
EQ-5D score 0.620 (-0.016; 0.760) 0.620 (-0.074; 0.796) 0.23
n = 23 n = 112
Education level    
 Primary school 0 (0.0 %) 5 (2.0 %)  
 Secondary school 11 (33.3 %) 64 (25.3 %)  
 College 5 (15.2 %) 21 (8.3 %)  
 University degree 17 (51.5 %) 163 (64.4 %) 0.37
No or rare ability to take rest breaks at work 4 (13.8 %) 68 (29.8 %) 0.18
Physical activity ≥30 minutes during leisure before pregnancy, days/week
 0 3 (9.1 %) 8 (3.2 %)  
 1 1 (3.0 %) 20 (7.9 %)  
 2 3 (9.1 %) 43 (17.1 %)  
 3 7 (21.2 %) 57 (22.6 %)  
 4 5 (15.2 %) 31 (12.3 %)  
 5 3 (9.1 %) 37 (14.7 %)  
 6 2 (6.1 %) 13 (5.2 %)  
 7 9 (27.3 %) 43 (17.1 %) 0.35
  1. For comparison between groups Fisher’s Exact test was used for ichotomous variables and the Mantel-Haenszel Chi Square Exact test was used for ordered categorical variables and the Mantel-Haenszel Chi Square test was used for ordered categorical variables and Chi Square Exact test was used for non-ordered categorical variables and Chi Square test was used for non-ordered categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used for continuous variables
  2. PGP pelvic girdle pain, LBP Low back pain, RCT Randomized controlled trial, BMI Body mass index, P4-test Posterior pelvic pain provocation test, ASLR-test Active straight leg test, VAS visual analoge scale. DRI Disability Rating Index; EQ-5D European Quality of Life measure – five dimensions; EQ-VAS European Quality of Life measure – visual analog scale. For categorical variables n (%) is presented. For continuous variables Mean (SD) / Median (Min; Max) / n = is presented