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Table 4 Comparison of occurrence of gait disturbance by gendera

From: Differences in musculoskeletal health due to gender in a rural multiethnic cohort: a Project FRONTIER study

  Male Female
  Number of participants (%) Odds Ratio (CI) Number of participants (%) Odds Ratio (CI)
Parameters Normal Gait disturbance Odds Ratio Odds Ratiob Normal Gait disturbance Odds Ratio Odds Ratioc
  (n = 273) (n = 18) (raw) (adjusted) (n = 601) (n = 59) (raw) (adjusted)
Race         
 Hispanic 153 (56.04) 11 (61.11)    374 (62.33) 21 (35.59)   
 Non-Hispanic white 108 (39.56) 5 (27.78) 0.64 (0.22,1.91) 0.29 (0.03,3.42) 207 (34.50) 34 (57.63) 2.93 (1.65,5.17) 1.17 (0.24,5.72)
 Others 12 (4.40) 2 (11.11) 2.32 (0.46,11.68) 0.42 (0.03,5.36) 19 (3.17) 4 (6.78) 3.75 (1.17,12.01) 0.67 (0.07,6.85)
BMI         
 Underweight --- --- not estimable not estimable 4 (0.67) 0 (0.00) not estimable not estimable
 Normal 46 (16.91) 5 (27.78)    109 (18.14) 12 (20.69)   
 Overweight 123 (45.22) 7 (38.89) 0.52 (0.16,1.73) 0.52 (0.08,3.37) 198 (32.95) 12 (20.69) 0.55 (0.24,1.27) 0.51 (0.14,1.85)
 Obese 103 (37.87) 6 (33.33) 0.54 (0.16,1.85) 0.31 (0.02,5.73) 290 (48.25) 34 (58.62) 1.06 (0.53,2.13) 0.43 (0.08,2.19)
Chronic health problemd         
 No 61 (22.34) 4 (22.22)    207 (34.50) 7 (11.86)   
 Yes 212 (77.66) 14 (77.78) 1.01 (0.32,3.17) 1.48 (0.32,6.98) 393 (65.50) 52 (88.14) 3.91 (1.75,8.77) 2.08 (0.66,6.51)
General healthe         
 Good or better health 177 (64.84) 5 (27.78)    385 (64.06) 31 (52.54)   
 Fair or poor health 96 (35.16) 13 (72.22) 4.79 (1.66,13.85) 4.65 (1.04,20.82) 216 (35.94) 28 (47.46) 1.61 (0.94,2.76) 3.67 (1.17,11.47)
Arthritis         
 No 253 (92.67) 13 (72.22)    557 (92.68) 40 (67.80)   
 Yes 20 (7.33) 5 (27.78) 4.87 (1.58,15.02) 3.21 (0.60,17.21) 44 (7.32) 19 (32.20) 6.01 (3.21,11.25) 2.58 (0.96, 6.94)
Employed         
 No 78 (49.37) 13 (92.86)    211 (57.65) 36 (85.71)   
 Yes 80 (50.63) 1 (7.14) 0.08 (0.01,0.59) 0.47 (0.08,2.79) 155 (42.35) 6 (14.29) 0.23 (0.09,0.55) 0.55 (0.17,1.82)
  Median (min, max) Median (min, max)    Median (min, max) Median (min, max)   
Age (yrs) 60.0 (40.0,93.0) 72.5 (47.0,87.0) 1.08 (1.03,1.13) 1.07 (0.99,1.15) 55.0 (40.0,94.0) 72.0 (41.0,96.0) 1.08 (1.06,1.11) 1.06 (1.01,1.12)
Education (years) 10.0 (0.0,20.0) 8.5 (0.0,16.0) 0.94 (0.85,1.03) 1.07 (0.88,1.30) 11.0 (0.0,20.0) 12.0 (1.0,20.0) 1.03 (0.96,1.09) 1.13 (0.95,1.33)
Income ($10,000 increment) 3.0 (1.0,8.0) 2.0 (1.0,8.0) 0.77 (0.58,1.02) 0.85 (0.53,1.36) 3.0 (1.0,8.0) 2.0 (1.0,8.0) 0.77 (0.66,0.91) 0.86 (0.66,1.12)
Waist circumference (cm) 99.1 (78.7,149.9) 99.1 (86.4,142.2) 1.02 (0.93,1.12) 1.19 (0.93,1.52) 96.5 (50.8,210.8) 104.1 (66.0,251.5) 1.07 (1.03,1.11) 1.02 (0.93,1.12)
Body fat (%) 29.3 (0.0,43.3) 29.9 (0.0,44.4) 0.99 (0.92,1.06) 0.91 (0.81,1.01) 40.0 (0.0,53.2) 42.9 (0.0,48.4) 1.03 (0.98,1.09) 1.07 (0.96,1.19)
CRP (mg/dL) 1.0 (0.2,33.4) 1.6 (0.5,12.4) 1.01 (0.89,1.14) 1.07 (0.93,1.24) 1.1 (0.1,31.1) 4.3 (0.5,24.2) 1.12 (1.06,1.18) 1.09 (1.01,1.19)
Glucose (mg/dL) 102.0 (65.0,304.0) 103.0 (83.0,303.0) 1.01 (1.00,1.02) 1.01 (1.00,1.03) 97.0 (67.0,520.0) 98.0 (75.0,400.0) 1.00 (1.00,1.01) 1.01 (1.00,1.01)
HbA1c (%) 5.7 (4.6,14.3) 6.1 (4.8,13.0) 1.26 (0.99,1.61) 1.49 (0.99,2.24) 5.7 (4.1,14.0) 6.0 (4.7,14.0) 1.13 (0.97,1.31) 1.32 (1.01,1.70)
Uric acid (mg/dL) 6.0 (2.2,10.5) 6.1 (4.1,8.3) 0.94 (0.65,1.37) 0.98 (0.55,1.75) 4.7 (1.8,10.8) 5.2 (2.5,9.7) 1.29 (1.02,1.62) 1.00 (0.69,1.44)
LDL (mg/dL) 109.0 (34.0,253.0) 90.5 (49.0,201.0) 1.00 (0.98,1.01) 1.00 (0.98,1.02) 112.0 (38.0,250.0) 105.0 (24.0,190.0) 0.99 (0.98,0.99) 0.99 (0.98,1.01)
vLDL (mg/dL) 29.0 (9.0,235.0) 30.0 (16.0,58.0) 0.99 (0.97,1.02) 1.00 (0.98,1.03) 28.0 (9.0,139.0) 25.0 (9.0,230.0) 1.01 (0.99,1.02) 1.01 (0.99,1.03)
  1. BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, LDL low density lipoprotein, vLDL very low density lipoprotein
  2. aPatients with at least one of the gait abnormalities including stiff, spastic, narrow-based, wide-based, unstable and shuffling gaits are defined as having gait disturbance
  3. b n = 159 due to missing values; from multivariable analysis; adjusted for demographic and socioeconomically factors
  4. cn = 362 due to missing values; from multivariable analysis; adjusted for demographic and socioeconomically factors
  5. dPatients with at least one of the chronic health problems of diabetes, pulmonary disease, and heart disease are defined as having chronic health problems
  6. eBased on questionnaire survey, patients who had “Excellent”, “Very good” or “Good” general health were defined as having “good or better health” condition, and those who had “Fair” or “Poor” general health were defined as having “fair or poor health” condition