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Table 3 Gender comparison of differences in musculoskeletal discomfort due to variations in different parameters

From: Differences in musculoskeletal health due to gender in a rural multiethnic cohort: a Project FRONTIER study

  Male Female
Parameters Estimated differencea, b p value* Estimated differencea, b p value**
Race     
 Non-Hispanic white vs. Hispanic –0.0396a 0.8634 0.3542a 0.0286
 Others vs. Hispanic –0.5542a 0.1379 0.5496a 0.0188
Age (years) 0.0041/yrb 0.5748 0.0122/yrb 0.0254
BMI     
 Underweight vs. Normal --- --- –1.4221 0.0596
 Overweight vs. Normal 0.0165 0.9400 0.1642 0.2844
 Obese vs. Normal –0.2487 0.4159 0.1838 0.3354
Waist circumference (cm) 0.0248/cmb 0.0052 0.007/cmb 0.1360
Body fat (%) –0.0100/(% body fat)b 0.4675 0.0009/%b 0.9359
Income ($10 K increment) –0.0143/$10Kb 0.7162 –0.0367/$10Kb 0.1876
Education (years) –0.0237/yrb 0.2348 0.0197/yrb 0.2287
Employed     
 Yes vs. No 0.0354 0.8289 0.1823 0.1006
Chronic health problemsc     
 Yes vs. No 0.276 0.0836 0.3377 0.0038
General healthd     
 Fair or poor health vs. Good or better health 0.4054 0.0069 0.5678 <.0001
Arthritis     
 Yes vs. No 0.6651 0.0011 0.5267 <.0001
CRP (mg/dL) –0.0238/(mg/dL)b 0.2825 0.0004/(mg/dL)b 0.9721
Glucose (mg/dL) 0.0005/(mg/dL)b 0.7734 –0.0009/(mg/dL)b 0.3888
HbA1c (%) 0.0084/%b 0.8662 –0.0411/%b 0.2931
Uric acid (mg/dL) –0.0421/(mg/dL)b 0.4885 –0.0010/(mg/dL)b 0.9817
LDL (mg/dL) –0.0015/(mg/dL)b 0.4046 –0.0023/(mg/dL)b 0.0884
vLDL (mg/dL) –0.0026/(mg/dL)b 0.3602 0.0003/(mg/dL)b 0.9161
  1. BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, LDL low density lipoprotein, vLDL very low density lipoprotein
  2. aLogarithmic (ln) value of difference in musculoskeletal discomfort due to the change in a categorical variable
  3. bLogarithmic (ln) value of difference in musculoskeletal discomfort per unit change of a continuous variable
  4. cParticipants with at least one of the chronic health problems of diabetes, pulmonary disease, and heart disease are defined as having chronic health problems
  5. dBased on questionnaire survey, patients who had “Excellent”, “Very good” or “Good” general health were defined as having “good or better health” condition, and those who had “Fair” or “Poor” general health were defined as having “fair or poor health” condition
  6. *n = 167; from multivariable analysis; adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic factors; critical value is 0.025
  7. **n = 367; from multivariable analysis; adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic factors; critical value is 0.025