Skip to main content

Table 2 Gender comparison of differences in dominant hand grip strength due to variations in different parameters

From: Differences in musculoskeletal health due to gender in a rural multiethnic cohort: a Project FRONTIER study

Parameters Male Female
  Estimated differencea, b p value* Estimated differencea, b p value**
Race     
 Non-Hispanic white vs. Hispanic 4.5731 kga 0.0409 1.5061 kga 0.1211
 Others vs. Hispanic 8.0461 kga 0.0243 4.4964 kga 0.0075
Age (years) –0.4475 kg/yrb <0.0001 –0.2608 kg/yrb <0.0001
BMI     
 Underweight vs. Normal ---- --- –1.8212 kga 0.5370
 Overweight vs. Normal 2.9985 kga 0.1555 1.4989 kga 0.0947
 Obese vs. Normal 5.7179 kga 0.0503 2.1318 kga 0.0671
Waist circumference (cm) 0.0030 kg/cmb 0.9706 0.0384 kg/cmb 0.1778
Body fat (%) –0.1199 kg/(% body fat)b 0.4049 –0.1014 kg/% 0.1187
Income ($10,000 increment) –0.0566 kg/$10Kb 0.8795 0.2433 kg/$10Kb 0.1375
Education (years) –0.1034 kg/yrb 0.6059 0.0120 kg/yrb 0.9058
Employed     
 Yes vs. No –0.6770 kga 0.6782 0.4578 kga 0.5009
Chronic health problemc     
 Yes vs. No –1.5912 kga 0.3011 –0.4255 kga 0.5235
General healthd     
 Fair or poor health vs. Good or better health –2.5250 kga 0.0945 –3.8704 kga <.0001
Arthritis     
 Yes vs. No –6.5910 kga 0.0089 –2.4360 kga 0.0102
CRP (mg/dL) 0.1008 kg/(mg/dL)b 0.5909 0.0022 kg/(mg/dL)b 0.9784
Glucose (mg/dL) –0.0212 kg/(mg/dL)b 0.2234 –0.0058 kg/(mg/dL)b 0.3646
HbA1c (%) –0.3704 kg/%b 0.4586 –0.2888 kg/%b 0.2248
Uric acid (mg/dL) –0.2043 kg/(mg/dL)b 0.7648 0.1553 kg/(mg/dL)b 0.6565
LDL (mg/dL) 0.0315 kg/(mg/dL)b 0.0859 0.0210 kg/(mg/dL)b 0.0128
vLDL (mg/dL) 0.0007 kg/(mg/dL)b 0.9817 0.0045 kg/(mg/dL)b 0.8264
  1. BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, LDL low density lipoprotein, vLDL very low density lipoprotein
  2. aDifference in dominant hand grip strength due to the difference of a categorical variable
  3. bDifference in dominant hand grip strength per unit change of a continuous variable
  4. cParticipants with at least one of the chronic health problems of diabetes, pulmonary disease, and heart disease are defined as having chronic health problems
  5. dBased on questionnaire survey, patients who had “Excellent”, “Very good” or “Good” general health were defined as having “good or better health” condition, and those who had “Fair” or “Poor” general health were defined as having “fair or poor health” condition
  6. *n = 177; from multivariable analysis; adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic factors; critical value is 0.025
  7. **n = 379; from multivariable analysis; adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic factors; critical value is 0.025