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Table 1 Participant Characteristics

From: Differences in musculoskeletal health due to gender in a rural multiethnic cohort: a Project FRONTIER study

  Male (n = 343) Female (n = 774) P value
Parameter Mean SD Mean SD  
Age (years) 60.5 11.7 58.0 12.3 <0.001
C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 2.33 3.72 3.02 4.30 0.147
Glucose (mg/dL) 114.60 41.10 112.10 48.97 0.378
HbAc1 (%) 6.13 1.56 6.13 1.40 0.541
Uric acid (mg/dL) 6.21 1.41 4.97 1.35 <0.001
LDL (mg/dL) 111.15 37.09 113.70 35.08 0.283
vLDL (mg/dL) 36.25 27.26 32.03 18.43 0.062
Waist circumference (cm) 101.11 13.05 97.25 16.20 <0.001
Body fat (%) 28.61 6.78 39.07 7.01 <0.001
Hand grip strength (kg) 38.69 10.61 25.91 6.99 <0.001
  Medium Min, max Medium Min, max P value
Education (years) 10 0, 20 12 0, 20 0.043
Income per year ($10,000 increatment) 2–3 <1, >7 2–3 <1, >7 0.033
Musculoskeletal discomfort 1 0,7 1 0,7 0.607
  Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage P value
BMI (kg/m2)      <0.001
 Underweight (BMI < 18.5) 0 0 % 4 0.52 %  
 Normal Weight (BMI 18.5–24.9) 57 16.72 % 136 17.59 %  
 Overweight (BMI 25–29.9) 156 45.75 % 252 32.60 %  
 Obese (BMI > 30) 128 37.54 % 381 49.29 %  
Race      0.466
 Hispanic 190 55.39 % 455 58.86 %  
 Non-Hispanic White 138 40.23 % 292 37.77 %  
 Others 15 4.37 % 26 3.36 %  
Employment (yes) 98 47.57 % 192 41.03 % 0.114
Fair or poor Healthb 134 39.07 % 268 34.63 % 0.154
Arthritis (yes) 26 7.58 % 67 8.66 % 0.548
Coronary Artery Disease (yes) 24 7.00 % 19 2.45 % 0.001
COPD 3 0.87 % 6 0.78 % 1.000
Chronic health problema (yes) 248 78.7 % 480 69.1 % 0.002
Diabetes (yes) 36 10.50 % 70 9.04 % 0.445
Hypertension (yes) 51 14.87 % 111 14.34 % 0.817
Metabolic Syndrome (yes) 2 0.58 % 3 0.39 % 0.646
Any cancer (yes) 10 2.92 % 28 3.62 % 0.550
Vitamin D deficiency (yes) 3 0.87 % 2 0.26 % 0.172
Fibromyalgia (yes) 2 0.58 % 8 1.03 % 0.732
Gait disturbance (yes) 18 6.19 % 59 8.94 % 0.151
  1. aParticipants with at least one of the chronic health problems of diabetes, pulmonary disease, and heart disease are defined as having chronic health problems
  2. bBased on questionnaire survey, participants who responded “Excellent”, “Very good” or “Good” general health were defined as in “Good or better health” condition, and those who responded “Fair” or “Poor” general health were defined as in “Fair or poor health” condition