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Table 3 The results of the meta-analysis

From: No clear benefit or drawback to the use of closed drainage after primary total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcomes Study (n) TKA (n) Heterogeneity Effect model RR / MD (95 % CI)
Chi 2 (p) I 2 (%)
Infections       
 Any infection 11 840 0.75 0 Fixed 1.67 [0.55, 5.11]
 Superficial infection 4 275 0.59 0 Fixed 1.53 [0.30, 7.86]
 Deep infection 3 256 0.82 0 Fixed 4.00 [0.45, 35.28]
Blood loss       
 Total blood loss 3 178 <0.01 90 Random −162.93 [−407.58, 81.72]
 Hidden blood loss 2 118 <0.01 93 Random −46.73 [−286.55, 193.08]
Number of transfusion 6 385 0.14 43 Fixed 0.53 [0.40, 0.69]
Volume of transfusion 2 149 0.34 0 Fixed −180.30 [−268.32, −92.28]
Wound prolonged oozing 5 472 0.20 35 Fixed 2.31 [1.14, 4.68]
Soft tissue ecchymosis 5 432 <0.01 82 Random 2.23 [1.02, 4.88]
Operative time 2 118 0.30 8 Fixed 1.71 [−6.83, 10.25]
Wound haematoma 2 132 0.82 0 Fixed 0.45 [0.11, 1.84]
Deep venous thrombosis 6 474 0.31 5 Fixed 0.67 [0.25, 1.83]
VAS score       
 postoperative day 1 2 98 0.34 0 Fixed 0.01 [−0.40, 0.41]
 postoperative day 7 2 140 0.89 0 Fixed 0.16 [−0.55, 0.87]
 postoperative day 14 2 140 0.47 0 Fixed −0.44 [−0.56, 0.48]
Postoperative ROM       
 postoperative day 2 2 78 0.17 47 Fixed −2.60 [−6.77, 1.58]
 postoperative day 3 2 118 <0.01 89 Random −4.15 [−18.36, 10.06]
 postoperative day 7 3 240 0.29 19 Fixed −0.83 [−3.93, 2.27]
 postoperative day 14 3 240 0.49 0 Fixed −1.88 [−0.56, 1.29]
 postoperative year 1 2 180 0.92 0 Fixed 0.21 [−1.57, 1.99]
  1. Abbreviations: RR risk ratios, MD mean difference, CI confidence interval