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Table 3 Proposed treatment algorithm in the treatment of PCSTK

From: 360-degree cervical spinal arthrodesis for treatment of pediatric cervical spinal tuberculosis with kyphosis

Surgical approaches Indications of surgery
Anterior 1,mild kyphosis, less than 30° and after preoperative halo traction, the kyphosis changed to less than 5-10°;
2,single segment lesion and confined to the anterior and central column of spine;
3,spinal cord compression by paravertebral/epidural abscess or retropharyngeal abscess resulting in dyspnea and/or dysphagia;
4, the age less than 6 years old, and cannot suffer too much trauma.
Posterior 1,the lesion limited to the posterior column of spine and the compression to spinal cord from the posterior column ;
2, the history of anterior surgery.
Combined Anterior and Posterior 1, severe kyphosis angle, more than 30° or mild kyphosis deformity but progressive instability;
2, multilevel (≥2 levels) continuous segments and anterior column damaged severely or complicated by long-segment cervical spinal stenosis;
3, the age of children more than 6 years old.