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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population (n = 1057)

From: Three combinations of manual therapy techniques within naprapathy in the treatment of neck and/or back pain: a randomized controlled trial

  NMTa NMT excluding spinal manipulation NMT excluding stretching
Characteristics n = 352 n = 352 n = 353
Mean age (SD) 35 (12.2) 36 (11.9) 36 (11.4)
Sex, %    
Women 68 72 71
Painful area, %    
Back 35 33 33
Neck 54 54 54
Back/Neck 11 13 12
Duration of the    
pain, %    
1 week 17 16 18
2–4 weeks 29 26 26
1–3 months 18 22 21
3–6 months 9 8 7
>6 months 28 28 27
Similar previous complaints,    
%    
Yes 73 79 80
Mean pain intensity at baselineb 5.5 5.4 5.5
(SD) (1.6) (1.7) (1.7)
Mean pain related disability at baselinec 2.6 2.6 2.6
(SD) (2.2) (2.2) (2.2)
Education, %    
1–9 years 3 4 3
10–12 37 39 37
13–15 50 46 46
>16 11 11 14
General Health, %    
Excellent 14 17 19
Very Good 46 45 42
Good 34 30 34
Somewhat 6 7 4
Bad 1 - 1
Smoking, %    
Daily 18 14 17
Physical activity, %    
on medium or high leveld 33 33 43
Mean expectations of recoverye 6.1 5.9 5.9
(SD) (3.0) (2.9) (2.9)
Previous naprapathic treatment, %    
No 44 41 35
Yes, a few times 30 34 34
Yes, several times 26 26 40
Obesity, % 7 8 7
  1. aNMT = Naprapathic Manual Therapy (spinal manipulation/mobilization, stretching and massage)
  2. bPain intensity at baseline was based on three pain items: current pain, worst pain, average pain during the past 4 weeks (NRS 0–10 (0 = no pain, 10 = pain as bad it could be)) and calculated as an average pain score for these items
  3. cDisability at baseline was based on three disability items: interference with daily activities, recreational and social activities, and work activities, measured with numeric rating scale, (NRS 0–10 (0 = no interference, 10 = unable to carry on with these activities)) and calculated as an average disability score for these items
  4. dPhysical activity = medium (effort that would make it difficult to hold a conversation with someone) or high (you have a high pulse, you feel strained and become sweaty) level at least two times/week
  5. eExpectations of recovery are measured with NRS 0–10 (0 = not at all likely to be recovered, 10 = very likely to be recovered)