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Table 2 Comparisons of the discrete kinematic variables between male and female OA subjects (i.e., OM and OF) and between male and female healthy controls (i.e., CM and CF)

From: Gender differences in gait kinematics for patients with knee osteoarthritis

Joint Plane of motion Variable of interest Mean angle (and its standard deviation) [deg] Significant and meaningful difference: effect size d
OA male (OM) OA female (OF) Control male (CM) Control female (CF) Gender - OA (OM vs. OF) Gender - Control (CM vs. CF) Disease - Male (OM vs. CM) Disease - Female (OF vs. CF)
Knee Frontal At touchdown −1.37 (3.80) −4.88 (4.06) −2.02 (2.96) −5.75 (2.91) 0.89* 1.27* 0.19 0.20
Maximum peak during swing −1.24 (3.86) −4.66 (4.16) −1.77 (2.89) −5.20 (3.07) 0.85* 1.15* 0.16 0.15
Hip Frontal Maximum peak during stance 4.86 (3.73) 7.67 (3.21) 5.41 (1.94) 8.69 (2.61) 0.81* 1.43* 0.19 0.35
  1. Bold number indicates a large effect size (d > 0.8)
  2. *indicates statistically significant difference between groups of interest (p < 0.05)