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Table 3 Dimensions of activities of daily living according to a rotated factor analysis

From: Impairment in the activities of daily living in older adults with and without osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and chronic back pain: a secondary analysis of population-based health survey data

  Dimension 1 Dimension 2 Dimension 3 Dimension 4
Title Intense ADLs Basic IADLs Basic ADLs Hand-focused ADLs
Components 1 Lift and carry a shopping bag with 5 kg
2 Bend or kneel down
3 Climbing stairs up and down without walking aids
4 Walking 500 m without walking aids
5 Do regularly heavy house work
1 Wash clothes independently
2 Prepare food
3 Do regularly light house work
4 Manage financial affairs independently
5 Make telephone calls independently
6 Shopping
1 Go to the toilet
2 Eat independently
3 Put on and take off clothes
4 Sit down on a chair or bed and stand up
5 Take a bath or a shower
1 Stretch hand and shake hands
2 Turn on a tap or unscrew a can
3 Use fingers to grab and use small things
Description ADL items, in which heavy burdens or far distances have to be managed ADL items, which are necessary to live independently in the community ADL items, which consist of basic self-care tasks ADL items, in which the hand and fingers are used that focus on shaking, turning and handling small gadgets
Cronbach’s alpha 0.869 0.829 0.847 0.597