Skip to main content

Table 3 The adjusted GEE analysesa of the association between musculoskeletal pain (0–4) and work-related and individual risk factors

From: Multisite musculoskeletal pain among young technical school students entering working life

  All (N = 420) Men (N = 153) Women (N = 267)
Number of pain sites No. observations = 8820 (T0-20, 6½ years) No. observations = 3213 (T0-20, 6½ years) No. observations = 5607 (T0-20, 6½ years)
  RR 95 % CI p-value RR 95 % CI p-value RR 95 % CI p-value
Gender Men 1.00         
  Women 1.20 1.02–1.42 0.02       
Mechanical workload (0–24) 1.01 1.00–1.01 <0.01 1.00 0.99–1.01 0.14 1.01 1.00–1.01 <0.01
Quantitative work demands (0–4) 1.02 0.99–1.04 0.13 0.99 0.96–1.03 0.83 1.02 1.00–1.05 0.04
Control over work intensity (0–4) 1.01 0.99–1.02 0.44 0.99 0.96–1.02 0.72 1.01 0.99–1.03 0.13
Perceived muscle tension (0–22) 1.02 1.01–1.03 <0.01 1.03 1.01–1.04 <0.01 1.02 1.01–1.03 <0.01
Handgrip strength (kg) 1.00 0.99–1.00 0.84 1.01 0.99–1.02 0.42 0.99 0.98–1.01 0.41
Muscle endurance (Seconds) 0.99 0.99–1.00 0.39 0.99 0.99–1.00 0.60 0.99 0.99–1.00 0.28
Physical activity (0–6) 0.99 0.98–1.00 0.12 0.98 0.97–1.00 0.08 1.00 0.99–1.01 0.87
Tobacco use No 1.00    1.00    1.00   
  Yes 1.16 1.06–1.26 <0.01 1.23 1.04–1.45 0.02 1.05 0.96–1.16 0.27
Socioeconomic status Low 1.00         
  High 0.88 0.79–0.98 0.02 0.91 0.70–1.18 0.47 0.88 0.80–0.98 0.02
Time (T0-T20) 1.01 0.99–1.01 0.05 1.01 1.00–1.01 <0.01 0.99 0.99–1.00 0.69
  1. [RR = rate ratio, CI = 95 % confidence interval]
  2. aThe analyses are adjusted for the other variables listed in the table. In addition adjustments for gender were done in the analyses of all subjects