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Table 1 Baseline variables: demographics and outcome measures

From: Upper cervical and upper thoracic manipulation versus mobilization and exercise in patients with cervicogenic headache: a multi-center randomized clinical trial

Baseline Variable Manipulation Group (n = 58) Mobilization & Exercise Group (n = 52)
Age (years): Mean (SD) 34.1 (12.6) 36.4 (10.0)
Gender (female): number (%) 41 (71 %) 33 (64 %)
Duration of symptoms (days): Mean (SD) 1693.7 (2357.7) 1633.8 (2229.9)
BMI (kg/m2): Mean (SD) 24.2 (3.8) 24.0 (3.3)
Headache intensity (NPRS 0–10): Mean (SD) 6.4 (1.6) 6.0 (2.1)
Disability (NDI 0–50): Mean (SD) 18.1 (7.9) 19.2 (7.8)
Headache frequency (0–7 days): Median 4 4
Headache duration: Median 3 3
Medication intake: Median 3 3
  1. NPRS Numeric Pain Rating Scale, 0–10, lower scores indicate less pain; NDI Neck Disability Index, 050, lower scores indicate greater function; Headache frequency = number of headache days in the last week, 0–7, higher scores indicate worsening; Headache duration = total headache hours in the last week, 1 = 0–5 h, 2 = 6–10 h, 3 = 11–15 h, 4 = 16–20 h, 5 = 21–25 h, 6 = 26 or more hours, higher scores indicate worsening; Medication intake = frequency of pain medication use in the past week, 1 = not at all, 2 = once a week, 3 = once every couple of days, 4 = once or twice a day, 5 = three or more times a day