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Table 1 Predictors of fibromyalgia symptoms: multivariate analyses

From: Predictors of fibromyalgia: a population-based twin cohort study

  OR (95 % CI) for LC2 1975 variable data OR (95 % CI) for LC3 1975 variable data n by variable in 1975 OR (95 % CI) LC2 1981 variable data OR (95 % CI) LC3 1981 variable data n by variable in 1981
age (years) 1.02 (1.01–1.03) 1.06 (1.05–1.07) 8343 1.02 (1.01–1.03) 1.06 (1.05–1.08) 8343
gender (female/male) 1.34 (1.20–1.50) 1.41 (1.17–1.70) 8343 1.08 (0.94–1.23) 1.16 (0.89–1.49) 8343
back pain (yes/no) 1.56 (1.38–1.76) 2.26 (1.88–2.72) 8149 1.73 (1.47–2.04) 2.99 (2.31–3.88) 7281
shoulder pain (yes/no) 1.42 (1.14–1.77) 1.84 (1.36–2.49) 8146 1.77 (1.41–2.21) 1.75 (1.23–2.48) 6636
neck pain (yes/no) 1.94 (1.60–2.35) 2.34 (1.79–3.07) 8144 1.23 (0.98–1.54) 1.76 (1.26–2.46) 6718
poor sleep 1.27 (0.96–1.66) 1.78 (1.22–2.60)   1.58 (1.17–2.14) 2.34 (1.49–3.67)  
good sleep 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 8116 1.00 1.00 7966
BMI (kg/m-squared)
 ≥ 30 1.19 (0.78–1.80) 1.86 (1.09–3.17)   1.19 (0.81–1.76) 1.65 (0.91–3.01)  
 25–29.9 1.20 (1.03–1.40) 1.60 (1.28–1.99)   1.32 (1.12–1.56) 1.67 (1.27–2.20)  
 18.5–24.9 1.00 (reference category) 1.00   1.00 1.00  
 < 18.5 0.80 (0.64–1.00) 0.86 (0.55–1.33) 8056 0.62 (0.44–0.88) 0.56 (0.25–1.25) 7913
education (years) 0.96 (0.94–0.97) 0.86 (0.83–0.90) 8134 0.97 (0.95–0.98) 0.89 (0.85–0.92) 7754
physical activity
 passive 0.94 (0.83–1.07) 1.15 (0.93–1.43)   1.04 (0.90–1.21) 1.08 (0.82–1.41)  
 moderate 1.00 (reference category) 1.00   1.00 1.00  
 active 0.90 (0.76–1.08) 1.00 (0.73–1.38) 8148 0.88 (0.72–1.08) 0.87 (0.58–1.30) 8007
exercise frequency/month
 1–2 times 1.02 (0.90–1.16) 0.98 (0.79–1.20)   0.96 (0.82–1.13) 0.94 (0.70–1.26)  
 3–10 times 1.00 (reference category) 1.00   1.00 1.00  
 > 11 times 0.856 (0.74–1.00) 0.91 (0.69–1.18) 7889 1.01 (0.85–1.20) 1.01 (0.73–1.40) 7849
smoking
 current 1.10 (0.97–1.24) 1.20 (0.98–1.47)   1.11 (0.95–1.29) 1.21 (0.91–1.59)  
 former 1.14 (0.98–1.32) 0.97 (0.75–1.25)   1.05 (0.90–1.24) 0.95 (0.70–1.30)  
 occasional 1.27 (0.97–1.66) 0.90 (0.53–1.52)   1.12 (0.79–1.58) 0.83 (0.40–1.72)  
 never 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 8146 1.00 1.00 7936
migraine (yes/no) n.a. n.a.   0.86 (0.68–1.08) 1.17 (0.82–1.67) 7986
headache frequency n.a. n.a.     
 many /week     3.35 (2.19–5.13) 7.22 (4.03–12.95)  
 1–4 /month     1.95 (1.62–2.35) 2.22 (1.56–3.15)  
 some/year     1.64 (1.40–1.93) 1.64 (1.19–2.26)  
 never     1.00 (ref. category) 1.00 7767
  1. The reference category for the outcome is LC1, i.e. those with no or very few fibromyalgia symptoms [12]. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals are provided for LC2 (with some fibromyalgia symptoms) and LC3 (with many fibromyalgia symptoms), based on latent class (LC) analyses in 1990. Predictors are assessed from data collected in 1975 and 1981 with the exception of migraine and headache frequency from 1981 only