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Table 4 Univariate linear regression analyses of demographic and clinical variables

From: Back pain was less explained than leg pain: a cross-sectional study using magnetic resonance imaging in low back pain patients with and without radiculopathy

  Back + leg pain (0–60) (N = 134) Back pain (0–30) Leg pain (0–30)
(N = 135) (N = 137)
Baseline demographic and clinical variables β (95 % CI) p β (95 % CI) p β (95 % CI) p
Sex , ref. female −0.25 (−4.35, 3.86) 0.906 −2.01 (−4.21, 0.19) 0.073 1.72 (−1.08, 4.53) 0.226
Age, pr. y, ref. 18 y −0.06 (−0.25, 0.14) 0.576 −1.35 (−0.24, −0.03) 0.011 0.08 (−0.06, 0.21) 0.252
BMI, pr. unit, ref. 18.4 0.17 (−0.28, 0.62) 0.449 0.22 (−0.01, 0.46) 0.062 −0.01 (−0.32, 0.30) 0.947
Radiculopathy, ref. noa 6.52 (2.20, 10.8) 0.003 −1.21 (−3.54, 1.11) 0.302 7.95 (5.22, 10.7) <0.001
Disability, pr. unit, ref. 5a 1.50 (1.02, 1.98) <0.001 0.57 (0.30, 0.84) <0.001 0.93 (0.59, 1.27) <0.001
Duration of pain    0.080*    0.029*    0.083*
  ≤ 3 mo ref.    ref.    ref.   
 3-6 mo 2.30 (−2.51, 7.10) 0.346 2.55 (0.07, 5.02) 0.044 0.18 (−3.12, 3.48) 0.914
 7-12 mo 10.9 (2.38, 19.3) 0.012 5.24 (0.86, 9.62) 0.019 6.06 (0.21, 11.9) 0.043
  > 12 mo 0.19 (−6.32, 6.70) 0.954 3.32 (−0.03, 6.68) 0.052 −2.69 (−7.16, 1.79) 0.238
Widespread pain yes, ref. no 9.46 (3.68, 15.2) 0.002 3.02 (−0.11 , 6.14) 0.058 6.69 (2.71 , 10.7) 0.001
Use of pain medicine 5–7 days pr. wk, ref. 0–4 days 6.34 (2.08, 10.6) 0.004 2.45 (0.19 , 4.72) 0.034 3.45 (0.52 , 6.39) 0.021
Tender points, pr. point, ref. 0 0.15 (−0.39, 0.69) 0.579 0.35 (0.08, 0.63) 0.012 −0.21 (−0.59, 0.15) 0.247
  1. β regression coefficient; CI confidence interval; ref reference. P-values less than 0.05 indicated by Italics
  2. Back + leg pain, back pain and leg pain intensity were dependent variables. All analyses adjusted for age and sex, except age and sex
  3. *Overall p by Wald’s test
  4. aThe highest adj. R2 for dichotomous variables was 0.20 (radiculopathy – leg pain) and for variables with discrete distributions 0.21 (disability – leg pain)