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Table 5 Comparison of MPI-S scales for the four samples. Statistical significance for overall group differences and for group-wise comparisons with the chiropractic primary care population as reference, using Dunnett’s t-test

From: Psychological and behavioral differences between low back pain populations: a comparative analysis of chiropractic, primary and secondary care patients

Scale Samples
A (primary care, Chiropractic) (n = 361) B (primary care, sick listed with risk of chronicity) (n = 128) C (secondary care, multimodal single-center) (n = 253) D (secondary care, multimodal multi-center) (n = 212) Overall group differences
Mean SD Mean SD p Mean SD p Mean SD p p
PS 3.40 1.23 2.81 1.33 <0.001 3.58 1.15 0.187 3.69 1.13 0.015 <0.001
I 2.91 1.37 2.50 1.34 0.003 3.82 1.10 <0.001 3.80 0.97 <0.001 <0.001
LC 3.37 1.16 3.84 1.09 <0.001 3.20 1.13 0.201 3.14 1.22 0.063 <0.001
AD 2.68 1.41 2.31 1.39 0.041 2.66 1.59 0.997 2.80 1.45 0.671 0.025
S 4.11 1.62 4.23 1.63 0.814 4.69 1.38 <0.001 4.46 1.58 0.030 <0.001
PR 0.87 1.14 1.27 1.33 0.005 1.08 1.21 0.100 1.14 1.30 0.033 0.005
SR 2.78 1.49 2.89 1.43 0.754 3.17 1.00 0.001 3.08 1.05 0.020 0.001
DR 2.84 1.47 2.98 1.57 0.738 3.14 1.62 0.062 3.18 1.62 0.033 0.038
  1. PS Pain Severity, I Interference, LC Life Control, AD Affective Distress, S Support, PR Punishing Responses, SR Solicitous Responses, DR Distracting Responses