Skip to main content

Table 1 Absolute, constant and variable errors made by men and women in each shoulder range. Only overall value is presented for variable error

From: Sex differences in the shoulder joint position sense acuity: a cross-sectional study

Absolute error
Shoulder ranges Female Male
Low-range 5.01 ± 2.65° 5.65 ± 2.59°
(55 ± 10°)
Mid-range 2.8 ± 1.28° 3.4 ± 1.58°
(90 ± 10°)
High-range 3.11 ± 1.22° 2.93 ± 1.4°
(125 ± 10°)
Constant error
Shoulder ranges Female Male
Low-range 4.23 ± 2.89° 3.34 ± 4.02°
(55 ± 10°)
Mid-range 2.63 ± 1.7° −0.18 ± 2.93°
(90 ± 10°)
High-range 0.03 ± 2.62° −1.58 ± 2.07°
(125 ± 10°)
Variable error
Shoulder ranges Female Male
Overall 2.24 ± 0.77° 3.12 ± 1.02°
  1. Position sense error in each shoulder range