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Table 4 Causes of reoperations or medical complications after surgery for hip fracture, stratified by fracture type

From: Outcomes after fixation for undisplaced femoral neck fracture compared to hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fracture among the elderly

(1) Reoperation
  1-Month 3-Month 6-Month 1-year 2-year 5-Year 10-Year
Fracture typea Un-dis Dis Un-dis Dis Un-dis Dis Un-dis Dis Un-dis Dis Un-dis Dis Un-dis Dis
Operation type Fixation Bipolara Fixation Bipolar Fixation Bipolar Fixation Bipolar Fixation Bipolar Fixation Bipolar Fixation Bipolar
nb 978 594 1466 860 1901 1021 2326 1268 2691 1650 3172 2311 3405 2615
Conversion to/revision arthroplasty 17.28%c 15.66 % 38.20 % 19.19 % 48.97 % 24.88 % 56.32 % 32.10 % 60.42 % 37.82 % 63.71 % 42.62 % 63.41 % 44.09 %
Removal of implant 15.03 % 10.61 % 29.81 % 11.63 % 36.61 % 12.73 % 41.19 % 12.15 % 42.55 % 12.06 % 41.49 % 10.39 % 40.03 % 10.02 %
Infection 9.30 % 46.80 % 10.91 % 43.14 % 10.73 % 40.55 % 10.83 % 35.73 % 12.00 % 31.15 % 12.89 % 26.27 % 13.33 % 25.05 %
Mechanical complicationd 21.98 % 22.90 % 34.17 % 24.65 % 35.56 % 24.29 % 33.53 % 24.61 % 32.40 % 24.42 % 30.67 % 22.89 % 29.63 % 22.29 %
Dislocation NA 23.57 % NA 25.81 % NA 23.11 % NA 19.87 % NA 16.42 % NA 12.81 % NA 11.66 %
Avascular necrosis 52.76 % NA 35.20 % NA 27.14 % NA 22.18 % NA 19.18 % NA 16.27 % NA 15.15 % NA
Same site second hip fracture 1.33 % 3.87 % 3.07 % 5.58 % 4.10 % 6.37 % 4.43 % 7.89 % 5.20 % 8.91 % 6.46 % 10.69 % 6.93 % 11.17 %
Malunion 0.92 % NA 0.75 % NA 0.63 % NA 0.77 % NA 0.78 % NA 0.79 % NA 0.79 % NA
Nonunion 3.07 % NA 8.73 % NA 14.68 % NA 19.60 % NA 19.55 % NA 18.06 % NA 16.98 % NA
(2) Medical Complication
  1-Month 3-Month       
Fracture typea Un-dis Dis Un-dis Dis       
Operation Type Fixation Bipolar Fixation Bipolar       
nb 1543 1726 1989 2126       
Stroke 12.70%c 11.88 % 14.43 % 12.98 %       
Acute myocardial infraction 3.18 % 2.61 % 3.42 % 3.15 %       
Pulmonary embolism 1.17 % 1.85 % 1.21 % 1.60 %       
Deep vein thrombosis 1.04 % 1.04 % 1.31 % 1.22 %       
Acute renal failure 5.12 % 6.55 % 7.04 % 8.42 %       
Acute respiratory failure 17.17 % 16.74 % 21.82 % 20.93 %       
pneumonia 25.15 % 25.38 % 30.87 % 32.13 %       
Exacerbation of COPD 59.17 % 59.33 % 53.44 % 54.66 %       
  1. NA Not available
  2. aFracture type : Un-Dis = Undisplaced; Dis = Displaced femoral neck fracture; Bipolar = Hemiarthroplasty
  3. bn = The number of subjects who had at least one readmission or reoperation
  4. c% = Percentage of subjects who had a certain cause of complication among the total number of subjects who had at least one complication or reoperation. Subjects might have had more than one readmission or reoperation due to multiple causes
  5. dMechanical complication included loss reduction, screw back out or cut out, skin irritation, and implant failure