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Table 2 Association between participants’ demographic factors and risk of prehypertension and hypertension among non-fracture group: bivariate analysis (n = 2,441)

From: Association of history of fracture with prehypertension and hypertension: a retrospective case–control study

Variables Per unit or comparison Prehypertension Hypertension Prehypertension and hypertension
Gender Male vs. female 2.22 (1.85, 2.67) 1.58 (1.27, 1.95) 1.96 (1.66, 2.32)
Age (years) Per SD increase± 2.35 (2.09, 2.64) 6.17 (5.15, 7.39) 2.98 (2.67, 3.32)
Body mass index (kg/m2) ≥35 vs. < 25 2.98 (2.20, 4.03) 2.71 (1.88, 3.90) 2.89 (2.18, 3.83)
Physical activity (MET-hours/week) Quartile 4 vs. 1 0.93 (0.67, 1.28) 0.70 (0.47, 1.04) 0.84 (0.63, 1.13)
Total fat intake (g/day) Quartile 4 vs. 1 1.05 (0.81, 1.36) 0.55 (0.40, 0.75) 0.84 (0.66, 1.07)
Alcohol intake (drinks/day) ≥3 vs. 1-2 1.06 (0.84, 1.33) 0.74 (0.55, 1.01) 0.96 (0.77, 1.18)
History of diabetes Yes vs. no 4.38 (2.85, 6.74) 7.62 (4.91, 11.83) 5.48 (3.64, 8.24)
Race Mexican American vs. Non-Hispanic White 0.67 (0.54, 0.85) 0.46 (0.34, 0.61) 0.59 (0.48, 0.73)
  Hispanic vs. Non-Hispanic White 0.61 (0.38, 0.98) 0.50 (0.28, 0.92) 0.57 (0.37, 0.88)
  Non-Hispanic Black vs. Non-Hispanic White 1.37 (1.09, 1.73) 1.49 (1.15, 1.94) 1.41 (1.14, 1.75)
  Others vs. Non-Hispanic White 0.54 (0.34, 0.84) 0.43 (0.24, 0.77) 0.50 (0.33, 0.74)
Smokers Current vs. never 1.02 (0.65, 1.59) 0.87 (0.52, 1.47) 0.96 (0.64, 1.44)
  Past vs. never 2.01 (1.27, 3.18) 1.85 (1.09, 3.14) 1.95 (1.29, 2.95)
  1. Values are odds ratio (95% confidence interval). ±18 years. Bold-faced values indicate statistical significance at P < 0.05.
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