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Table 1 Description of the motor control and cervical motion variables

From: Evidence for a general stiffening motor control pattern in neck pain: a cross sectional study

Construct Test Assessment Unit of measure Sensors Reps per test Analyzed Comments
Neck flexibility Active neck movements in flexion/extension, rotation and lateral flexion Cervical ROM in flexion/extension, rotation, and, lateral flexion deg S1 vs S2 3 Avg Full cycle cervical ROM
Conjunct motion in the two associated movement planes deg Avg According to Woodhouse et al. (2008)
Peak velocity in flexion/extension, rotation and lateral flexion deg/s Avg 3 D angular velocity
Proprioception Joint position error in left and right head rotation 3D repositioning error in left and right rotation deg S1 vs S2 6 Avg 3 repetitions in each direction
Trajectory movement control FOE slow speed Average point deviation (PD) cm S1 vs TX 1 Single 30 sec duration
FOE fast speed 1 20 sec duration
FOE in standing, slow speed 1 30 sec duration.
The Fly test, 1A Average point deviation (PD) cm S1 vs TX 1 Single 30 sec duration for all of the Fly tests. Adopted from Kristjansson et al. (2010)
The Fly test, 2B 1
The Fly test, 1B 1
The Fly test, 2A 1
Head steadiness Isometric neck flexion, low load Average 3 D angular velocity deg/s S1 vs S2 1 Single 60 sec duration 60° recumbent position
Isometric neck flexion, high load Average 3 D angular velocity deg/s 1 30 sec duration Supine position
Holding time sec
Postural sway Standing balance EO Sway area (95 % confidence area) cm2 S3 vs TX 1 Single 60 sec duration for the tests of standing balance.
Standing balance EC 1
Standing balance EOB 1
FOE in standing 1 30 sec duration
  1. The column test lists the order of the tests in the data collection.
  2. ROM = range of motion. CM = conjunct motion. Deg = degrees. 3D = 3 dimensional. FOE = figure of eight. EO = eyes open. EC = eyes closed. EOB = eyes open balance pad. S1 = forehead sensor. S2 = spinous process of T2. S3 = spinous process of L4-L5. TX = transmitter on Liberty. 1A = easy pattern, small ROM. 1B = easy pattern, large ROM. 2A = difficult pattern, small ROM. 2B = difficult pattern, large ROM.