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Table 1 Values for goniometer-set and SMA-derived arm elevation angles (mean ± sd)

From: Can a physical activity monitor provide a valid measure of arm elevation angle? A study to assess agreement between the SenseWear Mini Armband and the universal goniometer

Goniometer-set angle (gΘ) (degrees) SMA-derived angle (a1Θ) (degrees) Goniometer-set angle (gΘ) (degrees) SMA-derived angle (a1Θ) (degrees)
  Right arm flexion Left arm flexion   Right arm abduction Left arm abduction
Arm-by-side* (right: 1 ± 1, left: 2 ± 2) 14 ± 3a 15 ± 5a Arm-by-side* (right: 7 ± 2, left: 6 ± 2) 13 ± 3a 14 ± 5a
30 33 ± 5b 33 ± 5b 30 27 ± 6b 31 ± 5
45 46 ± 4 45 ± 5 45 44 ± 5 46 ± 5
60 59 ± 4 59 ± 6 60 59 ± 6 59 ± 6
90 83 ± 5a 80 ± 6a 90 83 ± 5a 83 ± 5a
120 110 ± 4a 108 ± 5a 120 111 ± 4a 108 ± 5a
150 134 ± 5a 132 ± 6a 150 135 ± 4a 130 ± 4a
Maximal active ROM* (right: 164 ± 5, left: 165 ± 4) 147 ± 5a 145 ± 6a Maximal active ROM* (right: 169 ± 4, left: 170 ± 4) a1Θ = 149 ± 5a a1Θ = 145 ± 6a
  1. ROM: range of motion.
  2. *Note that there was variation between individuals, and for individuals between left and right shoulders, for gΘ for ‘arm-by-side’ and ‘maximal active ROM’ positions.
  3. ap < 0.001 vs gΘ; bp < 0.05 vs gΘ.