Skip to main content

Table 2 Catastrophic failure loads of isolated facet capsular ligaments as a function of elongation rate.

From: Are cervical multifidus muscles active during whiplash and startle? An initial experimental study

Study N Gender Elongation rate (mm/s) Failure load (N)
Winkelstein et al. (1999) [43] 12M 0.0083 84 ± 37
Siegmund et al. (2001) [7] 13F 0.0083 94 ± 31
Myklebust et al. (1988) [44] 2–5* 10 108 ± 40**
Winkelstein et al. (1999) [43] 12M 100 136 ± 60
Ivancic et al. (2007) [45] 32 723 220 ± 84
Shim et al. (2006) [46] 15M 9600 – 13,600 260 ± 112
  1. * N at each cervical level from C2/3 to C7/T1 between 2 and 5
  2. ** average of the means and standard deviations at cervical level from C2/3 to C7/T1; also values reported here are half those reported by Myklebust et al (1988) because left and right ligaments were tested simultaneously.