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Table 4 Postural changes observed in TAO patients and implications of these changes

From: A musculoskeletal model of low grade connective tissue inflammation in patients with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO): the WOMED concept of lateral tension and its general implications in disease

Basic structure Related organ Description of the alteration Axes Potential effects
Head Eyes Elevation, tilted X, Y, Z postural alignment [196,197]
  Neck Rotated, tilted, extended or flexed X, Y, Z dorsal muscles [198] ocular torticolis [96,97]
  Nose Tilted Y, Z Retro nasal space?
  Mouth Tilted Y Jaw [199]
Face   Asymmetry   Head holding [200]
Neck Trunk Rotated Y Lymphatics, posture [200,201]
Trunk and abdomen   Rotated Increase of the intra-abdominal pressure Y Foot angle [62] Pelvic girdle pain [202]
Leg Pelvis Gluteus m. Rotated Y Hip sway Transversus abdominis [190] Altered femoral control [203]
Ankle Shank Hip Reduced range of motion X, Y, Z Instability [204], Sway Sensory changes and hypermobility [205,206] Altered hip load – unload [126] Hip weakness [207]
Feet shank Lateral displacement Y, Z Tightness of lateral calf muscles [156]
Feet Sole Asymmetry Y Posture information [155] Influence on retroocular muscles [55]
Foot to head Whole body    Posture asymmetry [208]