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Table 4 Univariate analyses for factors from the MD and MRI data sheets associated with a diagnosis of LSS

From: A diagnostic support tool for lumbar spinal stenosis: a self-administered, self-reported history questionnaire

  LSS (-) (n = 97) LSS (+) (n = 137) Odds Ratio 95% CI p-value
Age (years) > 50 20.6% 94.9% 71.50 28.9 – 176.9 < 0.001
Gender (Female) 42.0% 54.0% 1.60 0.95 – 2.71 07
Symptoms      
   Leg pain or numbness (+) 87.6% 94.9% 2.62 0.99 – 6.93 0.045
   Low back pain (+) 72.2% 65.0% 0.72 0.41 – 1.26 0.245
   Worse when walking but relieved by taking a rest 18.6% 94.2% 70.77 29.39 – 170.4 < 0.001
   Numbness in both legs (+) 15.5% 24.8% 1.80 0.92 – 3.54 0.083
   Numbness in the soles of both feet (+) 13.4% 20.4% 1.66 0.81 – 3.40 0.163
   Numbness around the buttocks (+) 9.3% 15.3% 77 77 – 4.05 173
   Numbness without pain 8.2% 11.7% 1.53 0.63 – 3.75 0.344
   A burning sensation around the buttocks 6.2% 8.2% 0.94 0.32 – 2.80 0.912
   Walking nearly causes urination 3.1% 5.1% 1.69 0.43 – 6.70 0.452
   Worse when standing for a while 24.7% 84.7% 11.38 6.20 – 20.91 < 0.001
   Symptoms improve on bending forward 8.1% 72.3% 25.47 11.66 – 55.64 < 0.001
Physical Examination      
   Straight Leg Raising test positive 33.0% 21.9% 0.57 0.32 – 1.02 0.058
   Symptoms induced by having patients bend forward (+) 30.9% 20.4% 0.57 0.32 – 1.04 0.067
   Symptoms induced by having patients bend backward (+) 53.6% 62.0% 1.38 0.81 – 2.35 0.229
   Abnormal manual muscle strength test 1) 8.2% 10.2% 1.27 0.51 – 3.15 0.611
   Sensory disturbance      
   (-) 57.7% 49.6% reference   
   (+) 2) 37.1% 45.3% 1.40 0.82 – 2.38 0.214
   Missing data 5.2% 5.1% 0.99 0.30 – 3.22 0.988
Achilles tendon reflex      
   Normal 51.5% 48.2% reference   
   Abnormal 3) 43.3% 46.7% 1.15 0.68 – 1.94 0.605
   Missing data 5.2% 5.1% 0.99 0.30 – 3.22 0.988
Patellar tendon reflex      
   Normal 70.1% 62.8% reference   
   Abnormal 3) 24.7% 32.1% 1.44 0.80 – 2.58 0.221
   Missing data 5.2% 5.1% 0.99 0.30 – 3.22 0.988
  1. 1) MMT < = 3, Strength was graded from 0 (no movement) to 5 (normal) at the knee extensors, ankle dorsiflexors, and plantar flexors, and extensor hallucis longus.
  2. 2) Hypoesthesia, analgesia, or hyperalgesia at the medial knee, dorsal foot, plantar foot, and perineal lesion
  3. 3) Absence or low response of deep reflexes