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Table 2 Results of linear-regression analysis using logarithmically transformed aluminium values as independent variables, and bone-mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) of the total hip and femoral neck as dependent variables.

From: No association between the aluminium content of trabecular bone and bone density, mass or size of the proximal femur in elderly men and women

   Univariate model β (SE) 95% confidence interval of β p-value Multivariate model β (SE) 95% confidence interval of β p-value
  Unit of exposure       
BMD femoral neck (g/cm 2 ) ** -0.098 (0.02) -0.137; -0.059 <0.0001 -0.023 (0.015) -0.054; 0.008 0.14
  *** -0.039 (0.008) -0.055; -0.024 <0.0001 -0.010 (0.006) -0.022: 0.003 0.13
BMD total hip (g/cm 2 ) ** -0.088 (0.021) -0.131; -0.045 0.0001 -0.013 (0.015) -0.044; 0.018 0.39
  *** -0.035 (0.009) -0.052; -0.018 0.0001 -0.006 (0.007) -0.020; 0.007 0.36
BMC femoral neck (g/cm) ** -0.56 (0.14) -0.84;-0.29 0.0001 -0.09 (0.11) -0.32; 0.13 0.41
  *** -0.22 (0.05) -0.33;-0.12 0.0001 -0.04 (0.05) -0.14; 0.05 0.38
BMC total hip (g/cm) ** -3.00 (0.95) -4.91; -1.10 0.003 -0.31 (0.63) -1.56; 0.95 0.63
  *** -1.20 (0.38) -1.96; -0.44 0.003 -0.17 (0.28) -0.74; 0.41 0.57
Width femoral neck (cm) ** -0.076 (0.083) -0.242; -0.089 0.36 0.025 (0.084) -0.14; 0.19 0.77
  *** -0.031 (0.033) -0.097; 0.036 0.36 0.010 (0.034) -0.058; 0.078 0.77
Area femoral neck (cm 2 ) ** 0.07 (0.51) -0.95; 1.09 0.89 0.26 (0.34) -0.42; 0.95 0.44
  *** 0.03 (0.20) -0.38; 0.44 0.89 0.11 (0.14) -0.17; 0.38 0.44
  1. * Adjusted for sex, age (by 10-year groups), body-mass index (continuous), height (continuous), creatinine clearance (continuous), demented hip-fracture cases (dichotomous) and non-demented hip-fracture cases (dichotomous) adjusted the analysis.
  2. β;parameter estimate, SE; standard error
  3. ** per unit of log-transformed aluminium
  4. *** per SD of log-transformed aluminium
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