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Table 4 Within-session, inter-observer standard error of measurement (SEM) and 95% confidence level (SEM × 2).

From: Reliability of two goniometric methods of measuring active inversion and eversion range of motion at the ankle

  Sitting Prone
  Inversion Eversion Inversion Eversion
SEM 4.6 4.5 4.1 2.8
SEM × 2 9 9 8 6
  1. * SEM = sd√ (1-ICC[2,1]).
  2. ** SEM × 2 indicates the extent of measurement error associated with a single measurement i.e. the range within which the true score lies with a 95% confidence level.