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Table 5 Nine subscales for scoring the severity of degenerative changes in the lumbar spine on imaging studies.

From: Towards standardized measurement of adverse events in spine surgery: conceptual model and pilot evaluation

1. Degeneration: assign a value 0 to 3 at each level
None 0  
Dark disc on T2 MRI 1  
End plate edema on T2 MRI 2  
End plate sclerosis 3  
2. Height loss: assign a value 0 to 3 at each level
None 0  
Yes, < 50% 1  
Yes, > 50%, but not ankylosis 2  
Yes, ankylosis 3  
3. Osteophytes: assign a value 0 to 3 at each level
None 0  
Yes, < 2 mm 1  
Yes, > 2 mm but not bridging 2  
Yes, bridging 3  
4. Herniation: assign a value 0 to 4 at each level
None 0  
Bulge 1  
Protrusion 2  
Extrusion 3  
Sequestered 4  
5. Stenosis: assign the total score 0 to 6 for each level
Right foramen 0 or 1 Value for stenosis is the sum of these components or 6 if there is complete block.
Left foramen 0 or 1  
Right lateral recess 0 or 1  
Left lateral recess 0 or 1  
Central stenosis 0 or 1  
Complete block 6  
6. Listhesis: assign a value 0 to 5 for each level
None, <10% 0  
Grade 1, 10 to 25% 1  
Grade 2, 26 to 50% 2  
Grade 3, 51 to 75% 3  
Grade 4, 76 to 100% 4  
Grade 5, > 100% 5  
7. Instability: assign an instability score 0 to 3 for each level
No instability 0  
Mild instability 1  
Moderate instability 2  
Severe instability 3  
8. Scoliosis and 9. Kyphosis: specify total magnitude 0 to 6 for each patient
<10 degrees 0  
11 to 19 degrees 1  
20 to 29 degrees 2  
30 to 39 degrees 3  
40 to 49 degrees 4  
50 to 59 degrees 5  
> 60 degrees 6