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Table 4 Dose-response analysis of LBP in relation the categorical predictor variables based on multivariate logistic regression including all variables (age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption and BMI). Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for LBP. Statistically significant findings indicated in bold.

From: Are lifestyle-factors in adolescence predictors for adult low back pain? A cross-sectional and prospective study of young twins

   1994 LBP >30 days past year.
n = 588
2002 LBP >30 days past year.
n = 636
2002 OR for LBP > 30 days past year in incidence cases*.
n = 314
Smoking 0 cig./day 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1–10 cig./day 1.38 (1.02–1.88) 1.60 (1.16–2.20) 1.76 (1.10–2.82)
  11–20 cig./day 2.00 (1.53–2.63) 2.13 (1.57–2.88) 2.12 (1.30–3.46)
  >20 cig./day 6.38 (2.66–15.35) 4.00 (1.11–14.48) -
Alcohol consumption <0.2 units/day 1.00 1.00 1.00
  0.2–0.6 units/day 1.29 (1.00–1.65) 0.76 (0.59–0.97) 0.82 (0.57–1.18)
  0.6–1.0 units/day 1.41 (1.02–1.93) 0.71 (0.51–0.98) 0.82 (0.49–1.38)
  > 1.0 units/day 1.58 (1.14–2.19) 0.85 (0.60–1.20) 1.25 (0.76–2.06)
BMI < 17 kg/m2 1.00 1.00 1.00
  17–23.9 kg/m2 1.00 (0.62–1.59) 1.00 (0.73–1.38) 0.91 (0.65–1.29)
  24–28.9 kg/m2 1.41 (0.82–2.43) 1.10 (0.72–1.69) 1.21 (0.70–2.09)
  = 29 kg/m2 1.01 (0.41–2.49) 1.26 (0.61–2.61) 1.33 (0.45–3.94)
  1. * No LBP in 1994.