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Table 4 Risk ratio of LBP occurring in each year level compared with the first year students (RR = 1)

From: Is undergraduate physiotherapy study a risk factor for low back pain? A prevalence study of LBP in physiotherapy students

Year Level Prevalence Overall Risk Ratio (95%CI) Gender-specific Risk Ratios (95%CI)
    Female Male
Fourth Year Students Lifetime 1.4 (1.1–1.8)++ 1.4 (1.1–1.8)++ 1.6 (0.9–2.6)
  12-month 1.5 (1.2–1.9)++ 2.1 (1.3–3.3)++ 1.6 (0.9–2.7)
  1-month 1.8 (1.2–2.7)++ 1.5 (1.2–2.0)++ 1.4 (0.6–2.9)
  1-week 2.1 (1.1–4.0)++ 1.4 (1.1–1.8)++ 0.9 (0.2–3.1)
Third Year Students Lifetime 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 1.8 (1.0–3.1)*
  12-month 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 2.0 (1.1–3.6)++
  1-month 1.3 (0.8–2.2) 1.1 (0.6–2.1) 2.1 (1.0–4.6)*
  1-week 2.2 (1.1–4.4)++ 1.1 (0.8–4.7) 3.0 (1.0–8.9)*
Second Year Students Lifetime 1.3 (1.0–1.6)* 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.6 (1.0–2.7)*
  12-month 1.3 (1.0–1.7)* 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1.6 (1.0–2.8)*
  1-month 1.6 (1.0–2.4)* 1.7 (1.0–2.7)* 1.5 (0.7–2.9)
  1-week 3.1 (1.4–7.3)++ 2.6 (1.2–5.7)++ 1.8 (0.7–4.9)