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Table 3 Prevalence of LBP (95%CI) as a percentage of the total number of respondents (overall, per year level and gender), and evidence of linearity for trend over the year levels (overall and per gender).

From: Is undergraduate physiotherapy study a risk factor for low back pain? A prevalence study of LBP in physiotherapy students

  Lifetime 12-Month 1-Month 1-Week
First year     
Male 47.6 (29.8–69.4) 42.9(21.3–64.5) 33.3 (12.7–53.9) 19.0 (1.9–36.1)
Female 61.0 (48.5–73.4) 54.2 (41.5–76.9) 30.5 (18.7–42.4) 13.6 (4.8–22.3)
Overall 57.5 (46.4–68.5) 51.3(40.1–62.5) 31.3 (20.9–41.7) 15 (7.0–22.9)
Second year     
Male 78.4 (64.9–91.8) 70.3 (57.6–83.0) 48.6 (32.3–64.9) 35.1 (21.2–48.9)
Female 66.7 (52.1–81.3) 61.5 (46.4–76.6) 51.3 (35.8–66.8) 35.9 (21.0–50.8)
Overall 72.4 (62.3–82.4) 65.8 (55.1–76.5) 50.0 (38.7–61.2) 35.5(24.7–46.2)
Third year     
Male 85.7 (39.4–100) 85.7 (30.6–100) 71.4 (12.9–87.0) 57.1 (0.1–70.9)
Female 63.0 (44.7–81.2) 55.6 (36.8–74.3) 33.4 (15.6–51.2) 25.9 (9.4–42.4)
Overall 67.6 (51.9–83.3) 61.8 (45.5–83.9) 41.2 (24.6–57.7) 32.4 (48.1–16.7)
Fourth year     
Male 75.0 (57.7–92.3) 66.7 (47.8–85.5) 45.8 (25.9–65.7) 16.7 (1.8–31.6)
Female 86.1 (74.7–97.4) 83.3 (71.1–95.5) 63.9 (48.2–79.5) 41.7 (25.6–57.8)
Overall 81.7 (71.9–91.5) 76.7 (66.0–77.4) 56.7 (44.2–69.2) 31.7 (19.9–43.5)
Total sample 69.2 (63.4–75.0) 63.2 (57.1–69.3) 44.4 (38.1–50.7) 27.6 (21.9–33.2)
Chi Square (p value) describing linearity of trend     
• Overall 7.9 (0.005) 8.2 (0.004) 7.1 (0.008) 4.1 (0.04)
• Females 5.1 (0.02) 6.2 (0.01) 7.1 (0.007) 7.4 (0.006)
• Males 2.7 (0.09) 2.0 (0.15) 0.7 (0.4) 0.1 (0.7)