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Table 1 The studies of the strain rate effect on the failure mode of the knee.

From: Modeling of failure mode in knee ligaments depending on the strain rate

Year Author Specimen Strain rate No. of knees Ligament tearing Avulsion & Tearing Avulsion
1968 Viidik et al White rabbits Femur-ACL-Tibia Rotated medially 90° Control Not specified 21 2 4 15
   40 weeks training   23 2 2 19
1974 a Noyes et al Rhesus monkeys Femur-ACL-Tibia 45° flexion Slow 0.62 %/sec 28 8 4 16
    Fast 67 %/sec 32 21 2 9
1974 b Noyes et al Rhesus monkeys Femur-ACL-Tibia 45° flexion Control 66.2 %/sec 30 18 3 9
   8 weeks immobilized 66.2 %/sec 18 8 3 7
   Exercise 66.2 %/sec 22 10 4 8
   Recondition 66.2 %/sec 22 14 2 6
1974 Alm, et al Beagle dogs Femur-ACL-Tibia 90° deflect Deformation rate 15 mm/sec 80 75 5 0
1976 Crownishiel, et al Rat Femur-MCL-Tibia 8.45*10-2%/sec 14 0 1 13
    84.5 %/sec 12 4 2 6
    19000 %/sec 16 8 4 4
    51000 %/sec 7 4 2 1
1976 Kennedy, et al Human knee Femur-ACL-Tibia 20–75 years Slow 40 %/sec 20 20 0 0
    Fast 140 %/sec     
1976 Noyes, et al Human cadaver knee Older (48–86 years) Femur-ACL-Tibia 100 %/sec 20 3 0 17
   Human cadaver knee Younger (16–26 years) 100 %/sec 6 6 0 0
   Rhesus monkeys (15 years) 66 %/sec 25 25 0 0
1990 Woo et al Immature rabbit Femur-MCL-Tibia 0.011%/sec 18 0 0 18
    0.15 %/sec     
    1.59 %/sec     
    12 %/sec     
    155 %/sec     
   Mature rabbit Femur-MCL-Tibia 0.011%/sec 18 12 6 0
    0.15 %/sec     
    1.66 %/sec     
    18.6 %/sec     
    222 %/sec     
1999 Schenck et al Human cadaver knee Femur-PCL-Tibia 45° hyper-extension Aver. 61 years Slow 100 %/sec 9 8 0 1
    Fast 5400 %/sec 9 0 0 9
   Femur-ACL-Tibia Aver. 61 years Slow 100 %/sec 9 5 4 0
    Fast 5400 %/sec 9 4 2 3